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Asia and the Pacific
Western Asia

About the GSoD Indices

The Global State of Democracy Indices (GSoD Indices) measure democratic trends at the country, regional and global levels across a broad range of different categories of democracy in the period 1975–2022. They do not provide a single index of democracy.

They include data for 174 countries across the globe, and are based on 157 individual indicators devised by various scholars and organizations using different types of sources: expert surveys, standards-based coding by research groups and analysts, observational data and composite measures. The Varieties of Democracy project contributes almost half of the indicators used in the Global State of Democracies Indices. There are 20 data sources in all.

The GSoD indices consist of category and factor scores per country per year for the period 1975–2022. All scoring runs from 0 to 1, with 0 representing the lowest achievement in the whole sample and 1 the highest.

For more information and to download the data, please see the GSoD Indices Methodology and Codebook in the Data set and Resources section below. 

Answers to frequently asked questions can be found here.

Overview of the Indices

Democracy is conceptualized as popular control over public decision-making and decision-makers, and equality of respect and voice between citizens in the exercise of that control. These principles have been translated into four top-level indices (categories) that are constructed from 17 second-level indices (factors). Two of the factors are constructed from component indices at a lower level aggregation. 

Credible Elections
Inclusive Suffrage
Free Political Parties
Elected Government
Effective Parliament
Local Democracy
Access to Justice
Civil Liberties
Freedom of Religion
Freedom of the Press
Freedom of Association and Assembly
Freedom of Movement
Freedom of Expression
Basic Welfare
Political Equality
Gender Equality
Social Group Equality
Rule of Law
Judicial Independence
Personal Integrity and Security
Predictable Enforcement
Absence of Corruption
Civil Society
Civic Engagement
Electoral Participation

Data set and resources

Data set

Version 7.1 of the GSoD Indices (with data up to 2022) is available for download in the following file formats:

Version 7.1 was released on 3 July 2023, replacing version 7. This new release includes a small improvement in the calculation of two measures: Civic Engagement and Participation. All other measures remain unchanged from version 7.


Version 7.1 of the data set implements some changes in the conceptual framework, and many changes in variable names. We recommend that users consult the codebook before using the data set. The codebook and methodology are available for download here:

More questions? 

If you have more questions about the GSoD Indices you can contact us by email at We look forward to hearing from you!

Old data sets and background documents

  • Previous versions of The Global State of Democracy Indices: Codebook are available here: version 2version 3; version 4; version 5; version 6. These documents present information about all the variables included in the GSoD indices data set.
  • Previous versions of The Global State of Democracy Indices: Methodology are available here: version 1; version 2; version 3; version 4; version 5; version 6. These documents explain the conceptual distinctions, theoretical framework and measurement procedures on which the GSoD Indices are based.
  • Previous versions of The Global State of Democracy Indices: Technical Procedures Guide are available here: version  2; version 3; version 4; version 5; version 6. These documents outline the technical steps taken in constructing the GSoD Indices. They were written for readers who want a better understanding of the Indices or for researchers who wish to use and build on the data contained within them. The guide builds upon the GSoD Indices Methodology.
  • Previous versions of the data set can be downloaded here:
    • Version 6.1 (with data through the end of 2021): .csv and .xlsx
    • Version 5.1 (with data through the end of 2020): .csv and .xlsx
    • Version 4 (with data through the end of 2019): .csv, .xlsx, and .dta
    • Version 3 (with data through the end of 2018): .csv, .xlsx and .sav
    • Version 2 (with data through the end of 2017): .csv.xlsx and .sav
    • Version 1 (with data through the end of 2016): .csv, .xlsx and .sav