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Spain

Monthly Updates

October 2022

Electoral reforms were approved this month, designed to make it easier for Spanish citizens living abroad to vote. The amendments lift the requirement to request to receive a ballot (these are now sent to all registered voters). The changes also enable downloading of the ballot electronically, and extend the permitted time for submission of the completed ballot. In Spain’s four most recent elections less than 10 per cent of voters abroad requested a ballot, according to official data, and even fewer completed the steps necessary to cast their votes. According to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the reforms protect the rights of voters living abroad to participate in elections and cast their votes.

August 2022

The United Nations Human Rights Committee ruled that Spain violated the political rights of Catalan leaders by suspending them from public service before they were convicted for their participation in the 2017 independence referendum. While the decision is not binding, it sends a strong signal with regard to the suspension of elected officials.

Explore past monthly updates

GSoD Indices Data 2012-2021

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Basic Information

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Population Tooltip
47 326 690
System of government
Parliamentary system
Head of government
Prime Minister Pedro Sánchez (since 2018)
Head of government party
PSOE (Spanish Socialist Workers' Party)
Electoral system for lower or single chamber
List Proportional Representation
Women in lower or single chamber Tooltip
43.0%
Women in upper chamber Tooltip
39.30%
Last legislative election
2019
Effective number of political parties Tooltip
6.07
Head of state
King Felipe VI
Selection process for head of state
Hereditary or election by hereditary state rulers
Latest Universal Periodic Review (UPR) date
22/01/2020
Latest Universal Periodic Review (UPR) percentage of recommendations supported
91.64%
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Human Rights Treaties

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State Party State party
Signatory Signatory
No Action No action
United Nations Human Right Treaties
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
State Party
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
State Party
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
State Party
Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women
State Party
Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment or Punishment
State Party
Convention on the Rights of the Child
State Party
International Convention on Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families
No Action
International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance 
State Party
International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
State Party
International Labour Organisation Treaties
Forced Labour Convention
State Party
Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention
State Party
Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining Convention
State Party
Equal Remuneration Convention
State Party
Abolition of Forced Labour Convention
State Party
Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention
State Party
Convention concerning Minimum Age for Admission to Employment
State Party
Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention
State Party
Regional Treaties
Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms
State Party
Protocol to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms
State Party
Protocol No. 4 to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms
State Party
Protocol No. 6 to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms
State Party
Protocol No. 7 to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms
State Party
Protocol No. 12 to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms
State Party
Protocol No. 13 to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms
State Party
in
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Early Warning System BETA

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Low risk of democratic breakdown Low risk of democratic breakdown (BETA)
Low risk of democratic backsliding Low risk of democratic backsliding (BETA)

Attributes Over Time

Representative government neutral Representative Government
Jul 2022
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec 2022
Representative government neutral Fundamental rights
Jul 2022
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec 2022
Representative government neutral Checks on government
Jul 2022
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec 2022
Representative government neutral Impartial administration
Jul 2022
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec 2022
Representative government neutral Participatory engagement
Jul 2022
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec 2022

GSoD Indices

Regime type
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