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Belgium

Monthly Updates

November 2022

A new law banning conversion practices was approved by the Belgian Cabinet, introducing a maximum punishment of two years in prison. Conversion practices involve attempts to force a change in a person’s sexual orientation or gender identity, with methods ranging from psychotherapy, electroshock therapy, medication, and physical violence. Conversion practices are condemned by the European Union, and the European Parliament has called on member states to implement bans. The Council of Ministers also adopted a framework law which defines femicide as a crime and establishes a system for the official collection and analysis of data related to femicides. State Secretary for Gender Equality Sarah Schlitz, who sponsored the law, has said that it intends to create “effective tools to better understand the phenomenon and protect the victims.”

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GSoD Indices Data 2012-2021

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Basic Information

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Population Tooltip
11 587 880
System of government
Parliamentary system
Head of government
Prime Minister Alexander De Croo (since 2020)
Head of government party
Open Flemish Liberals and Democrats (Open VLD)
Electoral system for lower or single chamber
List Proportional Representation
Women in lower or single chamber Tooltip
42.7%
Women in upper chamber Tooltip
48.3%
Last legislative election
2019
Effective number of political parties Tooltip
10.94
Head of state
King Philippe
Selection process for head of state
Hereditary or election by hereditary state rulers
Latest Universal Periodic Review (UPR) date
05/05/2021
Latest Universal Periodic Review (UPR) percentage of recommendations supported
75.32%
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Human Rights Treaties

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State Party State party
Signatory Signatory
No Action No action
United Nations Human Right Treaties
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
State Party
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
State Party
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
State Party
Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women
State Party
Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment or Punishment
State Party
Convention on the Rights of the Child
State Party
International Convention on Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families
No Action
International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance 
State Party
International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
State Party
International Labour Organisation Treaties
Forced Labour Convention
State Party
Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention
State Party
Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining Convention
State Party
Equal Remuneration Convention
State Party
Abolition of Forced Labour Convention
State Party
Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention
State Party
Convention concerning Minimum Age for Admission to Employment
State Party
Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention
State Party
Regional Treaties
Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms
State Party
Protocol to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms
State Party
Protocol No. 4 to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms
State Party
Protocol No. 6 to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms
State Party
Protocol No. 7 to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms
State Party
Protocol No. 12 to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms
Signatory
Protocol No. 13 to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms
State Party
in
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Early Warning System BETA

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Low risk of democratic breakdown Low risk of democratic breakdown (BETA)
Low risk of democratic backsliding Low risk of democratic backsliding (BETA)

Attributes Over Time

Representative government neutral Representative Government
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Representative government neutral Fundamental rights
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Representative government neutral Checks on government
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Representative government neutral Impartial administration
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Representative government neutral Participatory engagement
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GSoD Indices

Regime type
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