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Peru

Monthly Updates

December 2023

On 7 December, 101 out of 130 members of Congress voted to impeach then-President Pedro Castillo, soon after he announced the dissolution of Congress, alleging that the legislative body had been obstructing his ability to govern. Castillo had been the subject of multiple investigations by Congress and the Attorney General’s office for corruption-related offenses.  Castillo was detained and is facing criminal charges. He maintains his commitment to fulfilling his constitutional mandate as president and has sought political asylum in Mexico. Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, and Mexico have expressed their backing of Castillo.   Dina Boluarte, until then Vice-President, assumed the presidency on the evening of his impeachment.   Castillo’s supporters have protested throughout the country calling for early elections. On 14 December, Boluarte declared a country-wide state of emergency for 30 days and the suspension of rights with a view to restoring order. Violent clashes between protesters and police, particularly in the southern Andean region, have resulted in dozens of deaths and hundreds of injuries.

November 2022

A high-level delegation from the Organization of American States (OAS) visited Peru in November, pursuant to a resolution from its Permanent Council and after the request of President Pedro Castillo regarding the implementation of the Inter-American Democratic Charter with a view to “preserving the democratic political institutional process and the legitimate exercise of power in Peru”. The delegation met with multiple stakeholders and members of the executive, legislative and judicial branches. It also met with the country’s Attorney General and will present a report on its findings. Last month, President Castillo sought the intervention of the OAS and denounced investigations into his administration from the country’s top prosecutor, as well as the filing of a constitutional complaint against him as a new type of coup.

October 2022

Peru’s chief prosecutor presented Congress a constitutional complaint against President Pedro Castillo for corruption-related offences; it is the first time a sitting president faces a constitutional complaint, a procedure that allows officials with immunity to face accusations for certain offences. Some experts have pointed out that the constitution only permits a sitting president to be charged with specific crimes such as treason.   In response, Castillo has argued that such an investigation amounts to a “new modality of a coup”. He requested the Organization of American States (OAS) to implement the Inter-American Democratic Charter which states, among other provisions, that in cases of risk to legitimate exercise of power, member states can request assistance from the OAS to preserve their democratic system. On 20 October the OAS’s Permanent Council adopted a resolution in which a high-level group was appointed to visit Peru and analyse the situation.

Explore past monthly updates

GSoD Indices Data 2012-2021

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Basic Information

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Population Tooltip
33 359 416
System of government
Presidential system
Head of government
President Dina Boluarte (since 2022)
Head of government party
Independent
Electoral system for lower or single chamber
List Proportional Representation
Women in lower or single chamber Tooltip
40.0%
Women in upper chamber Tooltip
Not applicable
Last legislative election
2021
Effective number of political parties Tooltip
12.62
Head of state
President Dina Boluarte
Selection process for head of state
Direct election (two-round majority)
Latest Universal Periodic Review (UPR) date
08/11/2017
Latest Universal Periodic Review (UPR) percentage of recommendations supported
97.25%
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Human Rights Treaties

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State Party State party
Signatory Signatory
No Action No action
United Nations Human Right Treaties
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
State Party
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
State Party
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
State Party
Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women
State Party
Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment or Punishment
State Party
Convention on the Rights of the Child
State Party
International Convention on Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families
State Party
International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance 
State Party
International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
State Party
International Labour Organisation Treaties
Forced Labour Convention
State Party
Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention
State Party
Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining Convention
State Party
Equal Remuneration Convention
State Party
Abolition of Forced Labour Convention
State Party
Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention
State Party
Convention concerning Minimum Age for Admission to Employment
State Party
Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention
State Party
Regional Treaties
American Convention on Human Rights
State Party
Additional Protocol to the American Convention on Human Rights in the Area of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
State Party
in
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Early Warning System BETA

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Moderate risk of democratic breakdown Moderate risk of democratic breakdown (BETA)
Moderate risk of democratic backsliding Moderate risk of democratic backsliding (BETA)

Attributes Over Time

Representative government neutral Representative Government
Jul 2022
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec 2022
Representative government neutral Fundamental rights
Jul 2022
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec 2022
Representative government neutral Checks on government
Jul 2022
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec 2022
Representative government neutral Impartial administration
Jul 2022
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec 2022
Representative government neutral Participatory engagement
Jul 2022
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec 2022

GSoD Indices

Regime type
0 10