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Peru

Monthly Event Reports

December 2023 | Former president Fujimori granted humanitarian pardon

Former President Alberto Fujimori has been granted a humanitarian pardon by Peru’s Constitutional Court. The 85-year-old former president’s health has been mentioned as the basis for this pardon. He had been sentenced to 25 years imprisonment for ordering extrajudicial killings carried out by an army group, including the 1991 Barrios Altos and La Cantuta killings. A previous pardon had been overturned, given its implications for Peru’s international human rights obligations. The Inter-American Court of Human Rights (IACtHR), considering a request for provisional measures from victims’ families, called on the Peruvian government not to release Fujimori, reasoning that the nature of his crimes is incompatible with a humanitarian pardon. Once released, the IACtHR stated that Peru had flouted its rulings, which are binding on the Peruvian state. Fujimori’s conviction came after years of eluding justice, and victims’ families and activists have expressed their rejection of the decision.

September 2023 | State of emergency is declared in parts of Lima to address increase in violent crime

On 18 September, President Dina Boluarte announced a state of emergency to take effect the following day, in the Lima districts of Lurigancho and San Martin de Porres, as well as in the district of Sullana in Piura, in order to address an increase in crime. According to officials, while national police will continue to lead in public security, the state of emergency will enable the military to assist in enforcement. As a consequence of the state of emergency, certain rights will be suspended, such as the inviolability of the home and freedom of assembly and movement.  In early October, the Council of Ministers extended the state of emergency to the districts of Lince and Cercado, in Lima. 

July 2023 | Protesters participate in Lima “takeover” to demand Congressmembers and President to step down

On 19 July, mass protests against the government took place in cities and provinces representing about a third of the country’s territory, according to the country’s national human rights institution (Defensoria del Pueblo). Particularly in Lima, protesters called for a “takeover” to demand Dina Boluarte’s resignation and early general elections, as well as a constitutional assembly. Clashes between protesters and police left at least four injured in Lima and at least ten people were detained by police.

April 2023 | Government establishes a state of emergency to control migration

President Dina Boluarte announced a series of measures to control migration to the country, including the implementation of a state of emergency in the border regions of Tumbes, Piura, Cajamarca, Amazonas, Loreto, Madre de Dios, and Tacna. Other measures will include reforms to migration regulations in order to provide a pathway to regularize undocumented migrants, and legal reform to allow armed forces to permanently support tasks related to migration control. President Boluarte stated that an increase in crime is correlated to increased migration, and she asserted that mainly Venezuelan and some Haitian nationals are those who are “unfortunately committing these acts” of burglary and other crimes. News organizations have pointed to the lack of evidence to support these allegations, and along with organizations such as Amnesty International, have criticized the use of stigmatizing language that portrays irregular migrants as criminals.

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GSoD Indices Data 2013-2022

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Basic Information

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Population Tooltip
33 359 416
System of government
Presidential system
Head of government
President Dina Boluarte (since 2022)
Head of government party
Independent
Electoral system for lower or single chamber
List Proportional Representation
Women in lower or single chamber
40.0%
Women in upper chamber
Not applicable
Last legislative election
2021
Effective number of political parties Tooltip
12.62
Head of state
President Dina Boluarte
Selection process for head of state
Direct election (two-round majority)
Latest Universal Periodic Review (UPR) date
08/11/2017
Latest Universal Periodic Review (UPR) percentage of recommendations supported
97.25%
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Human Rights Treaties

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State Party State party
Signatory Signatory
No Action No action
United Nations Human Right Treaties
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
State Party
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
State Party
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
State Party
Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women
State Party
Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment or Punishment
State Party
Convention on the Rights of the Child
State Party
International Convention on Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families
State Party
International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance 
State Party
International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
State Party
International Labour Organisation Treaties
Forced Labour Convention
State Party
Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention
State Party
Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining Convention
State Party
Equal Remuneration Convention
State Party
Abolition of Forced Labour Convention
State Party
Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention
State Party
Convention concerning Minimum Age for Admission to Employment
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Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention
State Party
Regional Treaties
American Convention on Human Rights
State Party
Additional Protocol to the American Convention on Human Rights in the Area of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
State Party
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Performance by category over the last 6 months

Representation neutral Representation
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Representation neutral Rights
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Representation neutral Rule of law
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Representation neutral Participation
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Global State of Democracy Indices

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Explore the indices
Representation
Representation
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/1
high 0.7-1.0
mid 0.4-0.7
low 0.0-0.4
Rights
Rights
0
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high 0.7-1.0
mid 0.4-0.7
low 0.0-0.4
Rule of Law
Rule of Law
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high 0.7-1.0
mid 0.4-0.7
low 0.0-0.4
Participation
Participation
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/1
high 0.7-1.0
mid 0.4-0.7
low 0.0-0.4

Factors of Democratic Performance Over Time

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