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Argentina

Monthly Event Reports

November 2023 | Paradigm shift in Argentina’s politics with Milei’s presidential victory
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In a significant shift in Argentina's political landscape, the presidential run-off on 19 November saw a resounding victory for Javier Milei. Despite falling behind Sergio Massa by nearly 1.8 million votes in the first round, Milei secured 55.7 per cent of votes in the second round, leaving Massa trailing at 44.3 per cent. Known for his far-right leanings, Milei is set to implement widespread privatizations and introduce dollarization within his first year in office, aiming to stabilize Argentina's economy. His win has provoked a variety of global responses, with some expressing cautious optimism and others expressing concern about Argentina's economic trajectory. Despite the challenging social and economic context in which the elections took place, Transparencia Electoral, an independent organization that promotes electoral transparency, praised the Argentine citizenry for their commitment to democratic values.  The election concluded with a 76 per cent voter turnout, according to the National Electoral Chamber. A slight increase from the 74 per cent turnout in the October general elections, but lower than the 2015 run-off where 80.8 per cent of the eligible voters participated

October 2023 | Argentina's Elections: Massa and Milei Head for Run-off
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On 22 October, Argentina held its general elections with a turnout of 77.7 per cent (with compulsory voting from the age of 18). Peronist Economy Minister Sergio Massa and Javier Milei emerged as the leading presidential candidates, earning 36.7 per cent and 30 per cent of votes, respectively. Patricia Bullrich underperformed and was eliminated from the presidential race, securing only 23.8 per cent of the votes. The two frontrunners will face each other in a run-off on 19 November. Alongside the presidential election, the composition of Argentina's Congress was also determined. Unión por la Patria (UxP), led by Massa, became the dominant party, securing 32 out of 72 seats in the Upper House and retaining 104 in the Lower House. Conversely, Juntos por el Cambio's (JxC) representation diminished. Javier Milei’s La Libertad Avanza (LLA) made significant progress, becoming the third largest bloc in Congress. The number of women representatives decreased from 117 to 111. A preliminary report by Transparencia Electoral indicated the elections were conducted peacefully and democratically across the nation. Nonetheless, it underscores concerns about unequal competition, opacity in campaign financing, restricted media access for opposition, and misappropriation of public resources during campaigning.

August 2023 | Far-right populist wins presidential primary
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On 13 August, Argentina conducted its PASO primaries (primary, open, simultaneous, and obligatory). This critical stage in the country's electoral process determines the candidates for national offices in the general election. A candidate needs to secure at least 1.5 per cent of the vote to qualify for the general election scheduled for 22 October. The results of these primaries saw the emergence of far-right populist candidate Javier Milei as the victor. Milei, a member of Argentina's Congress since 2021, obtained first place, securing about 30 per cent of the votes. Milei promotes a radical libertarian platform and has vowed to close Argentina’s central bank. He opposes sex education, wants to ease firearm purchases, and denies the climate crisis. This outcome signifies a notable shift in Argentine politics, disrupting the long-standing dominance of the country's two principal political factions. His victory reflects public dissatisfaction with Argentina's traditional politics, especially amidst severe economic challenges. Voter participation was less than 70 per cent, marking the lowest turnout in over ten years since these elections were initiated.

June 2023 | Protests and violence escalate in response to provincial constitutional reforms

In June, violence erupted in Argentina’s north-western province of Jujuy following weeks of protests against reforms to the provincial constitution. These reforms facilitate the eviction of Indigenous land occupiers for lithium mining, prohibit common protest tactics such as roadblocks, and mandate prior notification to police of protest action. The unrest escalated on 20 June, when violent clashes between protesters and police erupted as the reform was fast-tracked and approved without public participation or consultation. At least 170 people were injured, and 68 others were detained during the repression of the demonstrations. President Alberto Fernández issued a statement condemning the acts of repression by the government of Jujuy and urged the governor to comply with international human rights standards. Several domestic and international rights organizations have expressed concern and appealed to the United Nations amidst the ongoing protests and arrests. The UN has also called for an investigation into the alleged human rights violations in the province.

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GSoD Indices Data 2013-2022

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Basic Information

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Population Tooltip
45 808 750
System of government
Presidential system
Head of government
President Javier Milei (since 2023)
Head of government party
Libertarian Party
Electoral system for lower or single chamber
List Proportional Representation
Women in lower or single chamber
42.4%
Women in upper chamber
45.8%
Last legislative election
2023
Effective number of political parties Tooltip
2.68
Head of state
President Javier Milei
Selection process for head of state
Direct election (modified two-round)
Latest Universal Periodic Review (UPR) date
06/11/2017
Latest Universal Periodic Review (UPR) percentage of recommendations supported
93.09%
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Human Rights Treaties

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State Party State party
Signatory Signatory
No Action No action
United Nations Human Right Treaties
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
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International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
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International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
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Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women
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Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment or Punishment
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Convention on the Rights of the Child
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International Convention on Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families
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International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance 
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International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
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International Labour Organisation Treaties
Forced Labour Convention
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Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention
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Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining Convention
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Equal Remuneration Convention
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Abolition of Forced Labour Convention
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Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention
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Convention concerning Minimum Age for Admission to Employment
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Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention
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Regional Treaties
American Convention on Human Rights
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Additional Protocol to the American Convention on Human Rights in the Area of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
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Performance by category over the last 6 months

Representation neutral Representation
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Representation neutral Rule of law
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Representation neutral Participation
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Global State of Democracy Indices

Hover over the trend lines to see the exact data points across the years

Explore the indices
Representation
Representation
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/1
high 0.7-1.0
mid 0.4-0.7
low 0.0-0.4
Rights
Rights
0
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high 0.7-1.0
mid 0.4-0.7
low 0.0-0.4
Rule of Law
Rule of Law
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high 0.7-1.0
mid 0.4-0.7
low 0.0-0.4
Participation
Participation
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/1
high 0.7-1.0
mid 0.4-0.7
low 0.0-0.4

Factors of Democratic Performance Over Time

Use the slider below to see how democratic performance has changed over time

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