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Timor-Leste

https://www.idea.int/democracytracker/

May 2023

Parliamentary election yields opposition wins

Timor-Leste’s parliamentary election was held on 21 May, with opposition party (The National Congress for Timorese Reconstruction (CNRT)) winning most seats. The election was marked by high voter turnout at 79.28 per cent, although slightly lower than 80.98 per cent in 2018. Official estimates on women’s political representation have not yet been publicized.  Election observers noted that the Timorese authorities delivered a transparent and well-organized election. CNRT gained 31 seats out of 65, falling short of the 33 needed for an outright majority. The results pave the way for CNRT, led by Xanana Gusmão, to form a new coalition government.

Sources: ANFREL, Reuters, IPU Parline, Associated Press

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GSoD Indices Data 2014-2023

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Basic Information

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Population Tooltip
1,341,296
System of government
Semi-Presidential system
Head of government
Prime Minister Xanana Gusmão (since 2023)
Head of government party
National Congress for Timorese Reconstruction
Electoral system for lower or single chamber
List Proportional Representation
Women in lower or single chamber
38.5%
Women in upper chamber
Not applicable
Last legislative election
2023
Effective number of political parties Tooltip
3.85
Head of state
President José Ramos-Horta
Selection process for head of state
Direct election (two-round majority)
Latest Universal Periodic Review (UPR) date
27/01/2022
LATEST UNIVERSAL PERIODIC REVIEW (UPR) PERCENTAGE OF RECOMMENDATIONS SUPPORTED
95.87%
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Human Rights Treaties

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State Party State party
Signatory Signatory
No Action No action
United Nations Human Right Treaties
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
State Party
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
State Party
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
State Party
Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women
State Party
Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment or Punishment
State Party
Convention on the Rights of the Child
State Party
International Convention on Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families
State Party
International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance 
No Action
International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
State Party
International Labour Organisation Treaties
Forced Labour Convention
State Party
Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention
State Party
Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining Convention
State Party
Equal Remuneration Convention
State Party
Abolition of Forced Labour Convention
No Action
Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention
State Party
Convention concerning Minimum Age for Admission to Employment
No Action
Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention
State Party
in
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Performance by category over the last 6 months

Representation neutral Representation
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Representation neutral Rights
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Representation neutral Rule of law
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Representation neutral Participation
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Global State of Democracy Indices

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Explore the indices
Representation
Representation
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/1
high 0.7-1.0
mid 0.4-0.7
low 0.0-0.4
Rights
Rights
0
/1
high 0.7-1.0
mid 0.4-0.7
low 0.0-0.4
Rule of Law
Rule of Law
0
/1
high 0.7-1.0
mid 0.4-0.7
low 0.0-0.4
Participation
Participation
0
/1
high 0.7-1.0
mid 0.4-0.7
low 0.0-0.4

Factors of Democratic Performance Over Time

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