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Sudan

Monthly Event Reports

November 2023 | Resurgence of ethnic violence in West Darfur
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In November, the UN and other monitors reported a resurgence of ethnic violence in West Darfur State following an assault on the town of Ardamata by the Rapid Support Forces (RSF) and allied Arab militias, which are fighting the Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) in the ongoing armed conflict. Between 800 and 1,500 people are estimated to have been killed in just a few days of violence which, like the ethnic killings that took place in the state’s capital, El Geneina, between April and June 2023, is reported to have been systematically perpetrated by the RSF and Arab militia against the Masalit community and, to a lesser extent, other non-Arab groups. According to witnesses, after wresting control of Ardamata from the SAF, the RSF and militia went through the town’s internally displaced people’s camp and other residential areas, detaining and summarily executing men (particularly Masalit community leaders), raping women and forcing thousands to flee to Chad. The UNHCR warned that a similar dynamic may be developing in Darfur to that which drove the region’s genocide in the early 2000s. Earlier in November, the UN expressed grave concern over reports that, in RSF-controlled parts of Darfur, women are being abducted and held in ‘inhuman, degrading slave-like conditions.’ 

June 2023 | Ethnic violence escalates in West Darfur
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In June, senior UN officials warned of escalating ethnic violence in West Darfur State, after reports emerged of large-scale and targeted attacks by Arab militiamen on non-Arab civilians living in the state’s capital El Geneina, a contested location in Sudan’s ongoing conflict. Prior to the conflict, both sides (the Rapid Support Forces (RSF) and the Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF)) had recruited fighters from rival ethnic communities. When fighting broke out in El Geneina in April 2023, it took on an ethnic dimension, establishing a pattern of violence in which the RSF and their local Arab militia are alleged to have systematically killed, raped and forcefully expelled members of the non-Arab Masalit community, whose fighters were allied to the SAF. The violence in El-Geneina is thought to have peaked in mid-June, when thousands were killed (including West Darfur’s Governor) or fled. Similar attacks have been reported elsewhere in West Darfur. The UN Special Adviser on the Prevention of Genocide stated that, if confirmed, the attacks could amount to war crimes and crimes against humanity.         

April 2023 | Intense fighting breaks out between junta factions
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On 15 April, intense fighting broke out between two factions within Sudan’s ruling junta – the Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) and the Rapid Support Forces (RSF), a paramilitary organisation. Despite several partially observed ceasefire agreements, the violence was reported on 14 May to have killed at least 676 people, including civilians. The number of casualties has continued to grow. The conflict has severely restricted civilians’ access to basic goods and services, caused widespread displacement and led to a surge in sexual violence and looting. It erupted shortly after key deadlines were missed in the roadmap for Sudan’s transition to democracy, which commentators say is likely to be further imperilled by the fighting. Under a recently signed framework agreement, the parties had been due to establish the civilian state institutions that would govern the country during a two-year transition period, but the deadline lapsed after SAF and RSF disagreements over security sector reform prevented the signing of a final transition agreement.

December 2022 | Transitional agreement signed by Sudan’s military junta and civilian organisations

On 5 December, the military junta signed a framework agreement with more than 40 Sudanese political parties, movements and professional groups aimed at restoring the country’s transition to democratic rule. The framework agreement provides for the transfer of power from the junta to a civilian transitional government, which is to govern Sudan for a two-year period ending in elections. In vague terms, it sets out the formation of several transitional state institutions, including a national legislative council, a council of ministers, and a head of state, that are to be based on human rights, the rule of law, civic participation and social equality. The agreement also enumerates issues and tasks to be addressed during the transition, such as security sector reform, transitional justice and constitution-making – although it leaves the resolution of the thorniest of these (most notably security sector reform) to a future, final agreement. While the framework agreement is an important breakthrough, the process is fragile and it has been rejected by many grassroots activists, who distrust the junta.

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GSoD Indices Data 2013-2022

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Basic Information

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Population Tooltip
44 909 351
System of government
Presidential system
Head of government
Prime Minister Osman Hussein (acting, since 2022)
Head of government party
Not applicable
Electoral system for lower or single chamber
Parallel
Women in lower or single chamber
Not applicable
Women in upper chamber
Not applicable
Last legislative election
2015
Head of state
Chairman of the Transitional Sovereignty Council Abdel Fattah al-Burhan
Selection process for head of state
Direct election (two-round majority)
Latest Universal Periodic Review (UPR) date
01/02/2022
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Human Rights Treaties

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State Party State party
Signatory Signatory
No Action No action
United Nations Human Right Treaties
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
State Party
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
State Party
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
State Party
Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women
No Action
Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment or Punishment
State Party
Convention on the Rights of the Child
State Party
International Convention on Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families
No Action
International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance 
State Party
International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
State Party
International Labour Organisation Treaties
Forced Labour Convention
State Party
Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention
State Party
Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining Convention
State Party
Equal Remuneration Convention
State Party
Abolition of Forced Labour Convention
State Party
Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention
State Party
Convention concerning Minimum Age for Admission to Employment
State Party
Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention
State Party
Regional Treaties
African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights
State Party
Arab Charter on Human Rights
State Party
in
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Categories of Democratic Performance

Representation neutral Representation
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Representation neutral Rights
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Representation neutral Rule of law
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Representation neutral Participation
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Global State of Democracy Indices

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Representation
Representation
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/1
high 0.7-1.0
mid 0.4-0.7
low 0.0-0.4
Rights
Rights
0
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high 0.7-1.0
mid 0.4-0.7
low 0.0-0.4
Rule of Law
Rule of Law
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high 0.7-1.0
mid 0.4-0.7
low 0.0-0.4
Participation
Participation
0
/1
high 0.7-1.0
mid 0.4-0.7
low 0.0-0.4
Annual value

Factors of Democratic Performance Over Time

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