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Mongolia

https://www.idea.int/democracytracker/

July 2023

Parliament amends electoral law to increase gender quota

In line with Mongolia's recent constitutional reform to overhaul its electoral system, parliament has moved to amend the Law on Elections to set a minimum quota for women among party candidates to 30 per cent (previously 20 per cent), with the stated aim of increasing it to 40 per cent in the 2028 election. The changes will be enacted from 1 January 2024, and are considered part of Mongolia's ongoing reforms to address long-standing gender-parity issues in political decision-making processes.

Sources: Montsame, The Diplomat, Vip76

May 2023

Parliament amends constitution to increase transparency and representation

The Mongolian Parliament on 31 May passed a constitutional reform to enlarge parliament from 76 to 126 members. Rather than a strictly first-past-the-post system, the reform introduces a mixed electoral system that will come into effect from 1 January 2024, wherein 78 members will be elected under the old system and the remaining 48 members by proportional representation via a political party list. The parliament sought out citizens' opinions in drafting the new amendments. The change aims to address the disproportionate representation of constituencies by "strengthening the legislature, increasing transparency, and bringing parliamentarians closer to the people they serve."  However, some experts argue that more focus should be placed on strengthening political parties and increasing female representation - the latter of which the government will soon introduce in a separate proposal.

Sources: Montsame, The Diplomat, The UB Post, Parliament of Mongolia

December 2022

Anti-corruption protests erupt

News that unnamed state officials had embezzled $12.8 billion in state coal revenue triggered mass protests in Ulaanbaatar on 4 December. The protests, which included a 5 December attempt to storm the Government Palace, reflect years of growing inequality and elite impunity during the country’s decade-long mining boom. The government has responded by declassifying documents relating to state-owned coal companies’ operations, but has so far resisted protester demands to release the names of the implicated officials.

Sources: The Economist, Reuters, The Diplomat

See all event reports for this country

GSoD Indices Data 2013-2022

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Basic Information

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Population Tooltip
3 329 820
System of government
Semi-Presidential system
Head of government
Prime Minister Luvsannamsrain Oyun-Erdene (since 2021)
Head of government party
Mongolian People's Party
Electoral system for lower or single chamber
Block Vote
Women in lower or single chamber
18.1%
Women in upper chamber
Not applicable
Last legislative election
2020
Head of state
President Ukhnaagiin Khürelsükh
Selection process for head of state
Direct election (two-round majority)
Latest Universal Periodic Review (UPR) date
04/11/2020
Latest Universal Periodic Review (UPR) percentage of recommendations supported
89.47%
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Human Rights Treaties

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State Party State party
Signatory Signatory
No Action No action
United Nations Human Right Treaties
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
State Party
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
State Party
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
State Party
Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women
State Party
Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment or Punishment
State Party
Convention on the Rights of the Child
State Party
International Convention on Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families
No Action
International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance 
State Party
International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
State Party
International Labour Organisation Treaties
Forced Labour Convention
State Party
Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention
State Party
Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining Convention
State Party
Equal Remuneration Convention
State Party
Abolition of Forced Labour Convention
State Party
Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention
State Party
Convention concerning Minimum Age for Admission to Employment
State Party
Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention
State Party
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Performance by category over the last 6 months

Representation neutral Representation
Nov 2023
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Representation neutral Rights
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Representation neutral Rule of law
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Representation neutral Participation
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Global State of Democracy Indices

Hover over the trend lines to see the exact data points across the years

Explore the indices
Representation
Representation
0
/1
high 0.7-1.0
mid 0.4-0.7
low 0.0-0.4
Rights
Rights
0
/1
high 0.7-1.0
mid 0.4-0.7
low 0.0-0.4
Rule of Law
Rule of Law
0
/1
high 0.7-1.0
mid 0.4-0.7
low 0.0-0.4
Participation
Participation
0
/1
high 0.7-1.0
mid 0.4-0.7
low 0.0-0.4

Factors of Democratic Performance Over Time

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