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Iraq

Monthly Updates

December 2022

On 5 December, a criminal court in Baghdad sentenced an Iraqi activist to three years in prison for a tweet that mocked and criticized Abu Mehdi al-Muhandis, former head of the government-salaried paramilitary organization Popular Mobilization Forces (PMF). The sentence, which follows a number of arrests targeting activists, sparked anti-government demonstrations. At least three protesters were shot dead and several injured as Iraqi security forces responded with deadly violence. Human rights groups have criticized the prison sentence and expressed concerns regarding the alarming escalation of legal threats against civil society and use of the justice system as a tool to suppress peaceful criticism by Iraqi authorities.

October 2022

The Parliament of Iraq elected Abdul Latif Rashid as president on 13 October, after obtaining support from the Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP) and Shiite Coordination Framework. Mohammed Shiaa al-Sudani was named Prime Minister by President Rashid and tasked to form a cabinet. PM al-Sudani’s proposed cabinet was approved by the parliament on 27 October, paving the way for a new government and break of what has been a year-long political deadlock. Prominent Shi’ite cleric and political leader Muqtada al-Sadr refused to participate in Iraq’s government.

September 2022

Iraq’s Prime Minister Mustafa al-Kadhimi convened a second round of talks on 5 September to resolve the ongoing political crisis between rival Shia blocs. Shi'ite Muslim cleric and political leader Muqtada al-Sadr called for the dissolution of the legislature and the holding of early elections in light of the current parliament’s failure to form Iraq’s new government. This proposal was rejected by the Supreme Court on 7 September, and parliamentary sessions resumed by the end of the month, with over 200 MPs in attendance. Several rockets were fired into the Green Zone as parliament was holding a vote to confirm its speaker with airstrikes and clashes lasting several days, wounding at least seven police officers.

August 2022

The long fluctuating political situation in Iraq over stalled attempts to form a government sparked violent clashes on 29 August. A deadly confrontation was triggered by Shiite cleric Muqtada al-Sadr's announcement that he was “retiring” from politics following the withdrawal of 73 Sadrist MPs last June, after failing to form a new government due to the Coordination Framework's obstruction. At least 30 people were killed and about 600 injured. This was Baghdad’s worst period of violence in years. While the violence subsided, deepening tensions between Sadrist Framework alliance and the Iran-backed Coordination continue. The political climate in the country remains tense, with both competing sides ready to again resort to arms and analysts claim Iraq could be on the verge of another civil war. The continuing political crisis led to the resignation of the Finance Minister this month, and the Prime Minister Mustafa Kadhimi threatening to step down if the conflict continues.

Explore past monthly updates

GSoD Indices Data 2012-2021

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Basic Information

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Population Tooltip
41 179 350
System of government
Parliamentary system
Head of government
Prime Minister Mohammed Shia' Al Sudani (since 2022)
Head of government party
Independent
Electoral system for lower or single chamber
Single Non-Transferable Vote
Women in lower or single chamber Tooltip
28.9%
Women in upper chamber Tooltip
Not applicable
Last legislative election
2021
Effective number of political parties Tooltip
5.63
Head of state
President Abdul Latif Rashid
Selection process for head of state
Indirect election (assembly)
Latest Universal Periodic Review (UPR) date
11/11/2019
Latest Universal Periodic Review (UPR) percentage of recommendations supported
82.21%
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Human Rights Treaties

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State Party State party
Signatory Signatory
No Action No action
United Nations Human Right Treaties
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
State Party
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
State Party
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
State Party
Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women
State Party
Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment or Punishment
State Party
Convention on the Rights of the Child
State Party
International Convention on Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families
No Action
International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance 
State Party
International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
State Party
International Labour Organisation Treaties
Forced Labour Convention
State Party
Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention
State Party
Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining Convention
State Party
Equal Remuneration Convention
State Party
Abolition of Forced Labour Convention
State Party
Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention
State Party
Convention concerning Minimum Age for Admission to Employment
State Party
Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention
State Party
Regional Treaties
Arab Charter on Human Rights
State Party
in
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Early Warning System BETA

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Elevated risk of democratic breakdown Elevated risk of democratic breakdown (BETA)
Moderate risk of democratic backsliding Moderate risk of democratic backsliding (BETA)

Attributes Over Time

Representative government neutral Representative Government
Jul 2022
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec 2022
Representative government neutral Fundamental rights
Jul 2022
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec 2022
Representative government neutral Checks on government
Jul 2022
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec 2022
Representative government neutral Impartial administration
Jul 2022
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec 2022
Representative government neutral Participatory engagement
Jul 2022
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec 2022

GSoD Indices

Regime type
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