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Monthly Event Reports

February 2024 | France enshrines the right to abortion in the Constitution

France became one of the first countries in the world to protect the right to abortion in its Constitution. The amendment to Article 34 of the Constitution guarantees the freedom for a woman to have recourse to a voluntary termination of pregnancy. The amendment comfortably cleared the three-fifths majority vote in Parliament required for constitutional reform. It was passed by the upper house (the Senate) on 28 February, with 267 votes for and 50 against, and by the lower house (the National Assembly) on 4 March with 780 votes for and 72 against. A 2023 poll shows that 82 per cent of the French population believes abortion should be legal, among the highest levels of support in Europe. The government expressed that the decision to protect the right to abortion in the Constitution followed a rollback of abortion rights across Europe and around the world, including the 2022 decision by the Supreme Court to strip women of the right to abortion in the United States.

January 2024 | Immigration law enters into force, following changes by Constitutional Council

On 27 January, the administration published a new immigration law easing deportation procedures, which has immediate effect. Following protests mobilizing an estimated 75,000 people across France, the Constitutional Council struck down 35 contentious provisions, out of a total of 86 articles. Provisions that are removed from the law include a five-year wait for immigrants to access family and housing benefits, the introduction of immigration quotas, and tightened restrictions on family reunification. However, provisions to facilitate deportation of foreigners presenting a “serious threat to public order” were maintained. Three articles were censured as unconstitutional, and the rest were rejected because they were considered outside the scope of the law. While the law importantly includes a ban on detaining migrant children (article 40), reflecting a recommendation from UN experts, it has been criticized by rights groups who noted that considerable obstacles remain for people’s rights. 

December 2023 | Parliament approves divisive immigration bill
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On 19 December, Parliament approved new immigration legislation which made significant concessions to the far-right, with 349 votes in favour and 186 against. The legislation designates migration quotas, to be decided by Parliament, to limit the admission of immigrants (excluding asylum seekers) for a period of three years. In addition, the law introduces the possibility of stripping dual nationals of their French citizenship if they are convicted of intentional homicide and where the victim is a public authority (including police officers, soldiers, judges and administrative officials). The law introduces restrictions on access to benefits for the unemployed, requiring immigrants who are unemployed to be resident in France for five years until becoming eligible for family allowances and housing aid. It also restricts the conditions to be met for family reunification. The legislation has been condemned by NGOs including the French Human Rights League (LDH) and Human Rights Watch. On 25 January, the Constitutional Council will determine whether the legislation conforms with the Constitution and reserves the power to censure any articles where it perceives a conflict.

November 2023 | Spike in anti-semitic incidents sparks protests

The government has recorded an increase in anti-semitic violence in France linked to the Israel-Hamas conflict. The Interior Ministry reported 1,247 anti-semitic incidents in the first month after the outbreak of the war on 7 October (almost three times as many as in the whole of 2022). France is home to Europe’s largest Jewish population, totalling nearly 500,000 people, though the French Jewish population was decimated under the Vichy regime during World War II. In response, protests against anti-semitism mobilized an estimated 182,000 people in over 70 events across France.

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GSoD Indices Data 2013-2022

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Basic Information

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Population Tooltip
67 499 340
System of government
Semi-Presidential system
Head of government
Prime Minister Gabriel Attal (since 2024)
Head of government party
Renaissance
Electoral system for lower or single chamber
Two-Round System
Women in lower or single chamber
37.8%
Women in upper chamber
35.1%
Last legislative election
2022
Effective number of political parties Tooltip
6.82
Head of state
President Emmanuel Macron
Selection process for head of state
Direct election (two-round majority)
Latest Universal Periodic Review (UPR) date
01/05/2023
Latest Universal Periodic Review (UPR) percentage of recommendations supported
80.47% (2018)
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Human Rights Treaties

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State Party State party
Signatory Signatory
No Action No action
United Nations Human Right Treaties
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
State Party
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
State Party
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
State Party
Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women
State Party
Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment or Punishment
State Party
Convention on the Rights of the Child
State Party
International Convention on Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families
No Action
International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance 
State Party
International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
State Party
International Labour Organisation Treaties
Forced Labour Convention
State Party
Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention
State Party
Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining Convention
State Party
Equal Remuneration Convention
State Party
Abolition of Forced Labour Convention
State Party
Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention
State Party
Convention concerning Minimum Age for Admission to Employment
State Party
Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention
State Party
Regional Treaties
Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms
State Party
Protocol to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms
State Party
Protocol No. 4 to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms
State Party
Protocol No. 6 to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms
State Party
Protocol No. 7 to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms
State Party
Protocol No. 12 to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms
No Action
Protocol No. 13 to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms
State Party
in
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Performance by category over the last 6 months

Representation neutral Representation
Oct 2023
Nov
Dec
Jan
Feb
Mar 2024
Representation neutral Rights
Oct 2023
Nov
Dec
Jan
Feb
Mar 2024
Representation neutral Rule of law
Oct 2023
Nov
Dec
Jan
Feb
Mar 2024
Representation neutral Participation
Oct 2023
Nov
Dec
Jan
Feb
Mar 2024

Global State of Democracy Indices

Hover over the trend lines to see the exact data points across the years

Explore the indices
Representation
Representation
0
/1
high 0.7-1.0
mid 0.4-0.7
low 0.0-0.4
Rights
Rights
0
/1
high 0.7-1.0
mid 0.4-0.7
low 0.0-0.4
Rule of Law
Rule of Law
0
/1
high 0.7-1.0
mid 0.4-0.7
low 0.0-0.4
Participation
Participation
0
/1
high 0.7-1.0
mid 0.4-0.7
low 0.0-0.4

Factors of Democratic Performance Over Time

Use the slider below to see how democratic performance has changed over time

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