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Israel

Monthly Event Reports

January 2024 | Israel’s attacks prompt ICJ ruling on obligations to prevent genocide
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Israel’s invasion of Gaza had, by the end of January, resulted in more than 27,000 deaths, including over 10,000 children. On 26 January, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) issued six provisional measures requiring Israel to prevent the commission of the crime of genocide in Gaza. Despite the ICJ’s requirement that Israel lift its blockade of the Gaza Strip and ensure humanitarian aid provision by 26 February, Israel's actions in Gaza persist.  The ICJ case, initiated by South Africa, accuses Israel of violating the Genocide Convention through its operations in Gaza. The ICJ's order underscores Israel's obligation to prevent acts that could potentially lead to genocide and to ensure no genocidal acts are committed by its military. This 15-2 vote by the Court emphasizes the obligation of Israel to prevent any genocidal acts by its troops. While this ruling does not require Israel to implement a cease-fire, it raises questions about what measures might be considered if Israel fails to comply.

November 2023 | Government delays local elections

Amid rising regional conflict, the Israeli government postponed local elections under a state of emergency. Initially scheduled for 31 October, the pivotal local elections, set amidst ongoing judicial and democratic crises, have been pushed to 30 January  2024. A further delay until 27 February 2024 is possible upon Knesset's approval. Later in November, Bezalel Smotrich, leader of the Religious Zionism party, sought an additional postponement due to many of his party's candidates serving in military reserves, impairing their ability to campaign effectively.

October 2023 | Hamas’ unprecedented attack sparks war with Israel

Following a Hamas offensive from the Gaza Strip on 7 October, which intentionally targeted civilians and resulted in over 1,200 deaths, about 5,400 injuries, and the abduction of 242 hostages. Israeli Defence Minister Yoav Gallant imposed a full siege on the Gaza Strip. As a result, the territory has been cut off from essential resources such as electricity, food, medicine, and water, raising fears of potential disease outbreaks and starvation among civilians. On 11 October, Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu declared a state of war, forming an emergency government with the opposition. Throughout the month, Israel responded with intensive air strikes, launching approximately 6,000 in the first six days and thousands more subsequently. According to the Hamas-controlled Gaza health ministry, this had resulted in over 9,000 Palestinian deaths, including more than 3,900 children, as of 4 November.  The conflict has also led to significant displacement, with Israel ordering the evacuation of the northern and central Gaza Strip on October 13, impacting around 1.4 million people.

July 2023 | Knesset approves legislation curtailing Supreme Court's power

On 24 July, the legislature (Knesset) passed a controversial bill that limits the Supreme Court's power to scrutinize executive decisions by abolishing the 'reasonableness standard'. The reasonableness standard is used by the courts “to take into account all relevant considerations and grant them proper weight.” Israel’s Supreme Court has relied on this standard to review decisions made by the government. Notably, it was applied earlier this year to annul the appointment of Aryeh Deri as Health and Interior Minister due to his criminal convictions, compelling Prime Minister Netanyahu to remove him from office. The legislation was adopted unanimously 64-0 by coalition MPs after opposition parties boycotted the vote (there are a total of 120 seats in the legislature). The approved law has been met with significant backlash, triggering widespread anti-government protests, heightened violence, and threats from thousands of military reservists to refuse their duty. Critics argue that the law could potentially enable the government to enforce policies without judicial review or oversight, which could possibly lead to abuses of power or unconstitutional actions. Following the bill's enactment, the Supreme Court declared on 26 July that it would review an appeal against the legislation in September.

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GSoD Indices Data 2013-2022

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Basic Information

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Population Tooltip
9 364 000
System of government
Parliamentary system
Head of government
Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu (since 2022)
Head of government party
Likud
Electoral system for lower or single chamber
List Proportional Representation
Women in lower or single chamber
23.3%
Women in upper chamber
Not applicable
Last legislative election
2022
Effective number of political parties Tooltip
7.99
Head of state
President Isaac Herzog
Selection process for head of state
Indirect election (assembly)
Latest Universal Periodic Review (UPR) date
23/01/2018
Latest Universal Periodic Review (UPR) percentage of recommendations supported
29.17%
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Human Rights Treaties

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State Party State party
Signatory Signatory
No Action No action
United Nations Human Right Treaties
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
State Party
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
State Party
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
State Party
Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women
State Party
Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment or Punishment
State Party
Convention on the Rights of the Child
State Party
International Convention on Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families
No Action
International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance 
No Action
International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
State Party
International Labour Organisation Treaties
Forced Labour Convention
State Party
Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention
State Party
Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining Convention
State Party
Equal Remuneration Convention
State Party
Abolition of Forced Labour Convention
State Party
Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention
State Party
Convention concerning Minimum Age for Admission to Employment
State Party
Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention
State Party
in
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Performance by category over the last 6 months

Representation neutral Representation
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Representation neutral Rights
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Representation neutral Rule of law
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Representation neutral Participation
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Global State of Democracy Indices

Hover over the trend lines to see the exact data points across the years

Explore the indices
Representation
Representation
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/1
high 0.7-1.0
mid 0.4-0.7
low 0.0-0.4
Rights
Rights
0
/1
high 0.7-1.0
mid 0.4-0.7
low 0.0-0.4
Rule of Law
Rule of Law
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/1
high 0.7-1.0
mid 0.4-0.7
low 0.0-0.4
Participation
Participation
0
/1
high 0.7-1.0
mid 0.4-0.7
low 0.0-0.4

Factors of Democratic Performance Over Time

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