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Malaysia

Monthly Updates

November 2022

Anwar Ibrahim was sworn in as Malaysia’s Prime Minister on 24 November, five days after the nation’s general election returned the first hung parliament in its history. Despite the hung parliament, the election was widely interpreted as an historic defeat for the UNMO party, which dominated politics from independence in 1957 until 2018, and had staged a partial comeback during the last two years of political instability in the country. Anwar, a former UNMO member with a long and tumultuous career in politics, has been the main opposition leader for nearly twenty years. He will be the fifth prime minister in as many years and will need to manage a broad coalition of political parties to maintain power.  This was the first Malaysian election held since the voting age was lowered from 21 to 18. Voter turnout declined from previous elections to 73.9 per cent, and despite an increase in the number of women candidates, the number of women in parliament declined from 33 to 30.  

October 2022

Following months of disarray in the ruling coalition, on 10 October Prime Minister Ismail Sabri Yaakob dissolved parliament and called for early elections. The central election commission set the election for 19 November. The election will be the first since Malaysia lowered the voting age from 21 to 18, enfranchising 5.8 million new voters, and the government has already come under significant criticism for the decision to hold elections during monsoon season.

August 2022

Former Prime Minister Najib Razak has exhausted all appeals and will begin serving his 12-year sentence for corruption stemming from the money laundering and embezzlement case, popularly known as the 1MDB scandal. The sentence is considered the biggest step in Malaysia’s fight against corruption in recent years, as well as a reaffirmation of the independence of the judiciary.

Explore past monthly updates

GSoD Indices Data 2012-2021

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Basic Information

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Population Tooltip
32 776 190
System of government
Parliamentary system
Head of government
Prime Minister Anwar Ibrahim (since 2022)
Head of government party
Pakatan Harapan Coalition
Electoral system for lower or single chamber
First Past the Post
Women in lower or single chamber Tooltip
15.0%
Women in upper chamber Tooltip
18.2%
Last legislative election
2022
Effective number of political parties Tooltip
7.0
Head of state
Yang di-Pertuan Agong Abdullah Sultan Ahmad Shah
Selection process for head of state
Hereditary or election by hereditary state rulers
Latest Universal Periodic Review (UPR) date
08/11/2018
Latest Universal Periodic Review (UPR) percentage of recommendations supported
55.22%
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Human Rights Treaties

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State Party State party
Signatory Signatory
No Action No action
United Nations Human Right Treaties
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
No Action
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
No Action
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
No Action
Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women
State Party
Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment or Punishment
No Action
Convention on the Rights of the Child
State Party
International Convention on Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families
No Action
International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance 
No Action
International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
State Party
International Labour Organisation Treaties
Forced Labour Convention
State Party
Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention
No Action
Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining Convention
State Party
Equal Remuneration Convention
State Party
Abolition of Forced Labour Convention
No Action
Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention
No Action
Convention concerning Minimum Age for Admission to Employment
State Party
Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention
State Party
in
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Early Warning System BETA

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Moderate risk of democratic breakdown Moderate risk of democratic breakdown (BETA)
Moderate risk of democratic backsliding Moderate risk of democratic backsliding (BETA)

Attributes Over Time

Representative government neutral Representative Government
Jul 2022
Aug
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Representative government neutral Fundamental rights
Jul 2022
Aug
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Representative government neutral Checks on government
Jul 2022
Aug
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Representative government neutral Impartial administration
Jul 2022
Aug
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Dec 2022
Representative government neutral Participatory engagement
Jul 2022
Aug
Sep
Oct
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Dec 2022

GSoD Indices

Regime type
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