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Mexico

Monthly Updates

December 2022

Mexico’s lower chamber of congress voted to reject President Andrés Manuel López Obrador’s controversial constitutional electoral reform, which had been criticised for weakening the independence and capacity of the country's National Electoral Institute (INE). The President’s alternative so-called “Plan B” electoral reform, which seeks to amend six secondary electoral laws, was approved on 14 December.  Opponents denounce it as an unconstitutional attempt by the president’s Morena party to consolidate power and claim it will weaken the country’s electoral infrastructure. Moreover, one of Mexico’s most prominent television and radio presenters, Ciro Gómez Leyva, was the victim of an assassination attempt as Mexico records its deadliest year for journalists. Reporters Without Borders (RSF) identified Mexico as the most dangerous country for journalists for a fourth consecutive year, with at least 11 journalists murdered in 2022, nearly 20 per cent of the global total.

November 2022

President Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador announced in April his intention to reform Mexico’s electoral system through constitutional amendments. In November, the proposed reform was submitted to Congress, while civil society organized mass demonstrations in defence of the National Electoral Institute. Widespread criticism of the proposed reform reflects the concern about its potential impact on the independence of the country’s electoral authorities and risk to the integrity of elections and voter registry. The proposed reforms seek, among other aspects, to replace the way in which electoral authorities are currently appointed, allowing the president and his party to control most nominations, to significantly cut their budget, and to eliminate local electoral authorities. The President also announced a “plan B” reform to the electoral law if the constitutional plan fails to obtain the two-thirds majority required in Congress for constitutional amendments, which the ruling party does not possess.

October 2022

Multiple homicides of municipal government officials were reported across Mexico during October 2022. Numbers show political violence in Mexico is increasing, with 60 local government officials murdered since President Andrés Manuel López Obrador took office in December 2018. The incidents highlight the flaws in the government’s public security strategy as well as the challenges to contain violence from organized crime and the impunity that has made local politicians vulnerable to such violence.

September 2022

A report by NGO group Global Witness released in September states that Mexico has become the deadliest place in the world for environmental and land defence activists, recording a total of 54 killings in 2021, the highest number of any countries. 

Explore past monthly updates

GSoD Indices Data 2012-2021

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Basic Information

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Population Tooltip
130 262 220
System of government
Presidential system
Head of government
President Andrés Manuel López Obrador (since 2018)
Head of government party
Morena (National Regeneration Movement)
Electoral system for lower or single chamber
Mixed-member Proportional Representation
Women in lower or single chamber Tooltip
50.0%
Women in upper chamber Tooltip
49.2%
Last legislative election
2021
Effective number of political parties Tooltip
2.69
Head of state
President Andrés Manuel López Obrador
Selection process for head of state
Direct election (plurality)
Latest Universal Periodic Review (UPR) date
07/11/2018
Latest Universal Periodic Review (UPR) percentage of recommendations supported
99.24%
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Human Rights Treaties

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State Party State party
Signatory Signatory
No Action No action
United Nations Human Right Treaties
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
State Party
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
State Party
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
State Party
Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women
State Party
Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment or Punishment
State Party
Convention on the Rights of the Child
State Party
International Convention on Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families
State Party
International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance 
State Party
International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
State Party
International Labour Organisation Treaties
Forced Labour Convention
Signatory
Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention
State Party
Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining Convention
State Party
Equal Remuneration Convention
State Party
Abolition of Forced Labour Convention
State Party
Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention
State Party
Convention concerning Minimum Age for Admission to Employment
State Party
Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention
State Party
Regional Treaties
American Convention on Human Rights
State Party
Additional Protocol to the American Convention on Human Rights in the Area of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
State Party
in
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Attributes Over Time

Representative government neutral Representative Government
Jul 2022
Aug
Sep
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Representative government neutral Fundamental rights
Jul 2022
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Representative government neutral Checks on government
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Representative government neutral Impartial administration
Jul 2022
Aug
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Dec 2022
Representative government neutral Participatory engagement
Jul 2022
Aug
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Oct
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Dec 2022

GSoD Indices

Regime type
0 10