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Philippines

https://www.idea.int/democracytracker/

December 2023

Executive order for special committee on LGBTQIA+ issues
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President Ferdinand Marcos Jr. issued an executive order (EO No. 51) on 22 December 2023, creating a Special Committee on LGBTQIA+ Affairs under the Inter-Agency Committee. The Committee aims to address discrimination against the LGBTQIA+ community, ensuring its participation in government policy formation. While rights advocates welcomed the move, others such as Bahaghari (an alliance of LGBTQIA+ organizations) have described the order as “insufficient,” urging Congress to instead prioritize the passage of the Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Expression (SOGIE) Equality Bill that has been pending in Congress for years, noting that “we do not need a committee or special group . . . but a concrete law that will protect every Filipino from discrimination based on gender.”

Sources: The Philippine Star, CNN Philippines, Official Gazette of the Republic of Philippines, Manila Today

July 2023

“War on drugs” continues

More than 300 drug-related killings have occurred since President Ferdinand Marcos Jr. took office last year, according to figures compiled by the University of Philippines program Dahas. Human rights experts note that there has been little progress since in the country's internal investigation into the drug-related killings. As a result, the International Criminal Court (ICC) moved to disregard the Philippines' objections on 18 July, clearing the way for an imminent probe. The government has said it will not cooperate with the ICC investigation, stating that it is not within the court’s jurisdiction. At the same time, the persecution of journalists and former critics of the war on drugs continues to be prolonged. Notably, Leila de Lima, a former senator known for her critical stance against the war on drugs, remains in police custody after being denied bail earlier in June.

Sources: Rappler, Human Rights Watch, Reuters, United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights

May 2023

Former opposition senator Leila de Lima partially acquitted

Former Senator Leila de Lima was acquitted in the second of three drugs cases against her in a case widely held to be politically motivated. De Lima, a vocal critic of ex-president Duterte’s “war on drugs”, has been in detention for more than six years. While the acquittal offers hope for her release and signifies a “long-overdue step towards justice,” human rights groups note that the government should launch an inquiry and implement reforms to prevent such politicization of the justice system.

Sources: Inquirer, The Diplomat, Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch

January 2023

A win for press freedom and rule of law

A Philippine tax court on 18 January acquitted Nobel Laureate and high-profile journalist Maria Ressa of four tax evasion charges, marking the end of a case that began in 2018 and which was widely believed to be politically motivated. A UN expert on freedom of expression said the acquittal signals a "victory for media freedom as well as justice." Ressa and Rappler still face three other charges, including one for cyber libel, which top UN officials and human rights advocates have urged authorities to drop.

Sources: OHCHR, The Guardian, Reuters, Amnesty International

Rights +1
Rule of Law +1

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GSoD Indices Data 2013-2022

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Basic Information

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Population Tooltip
115,559,009
System of government
Presidential system
Head of government
President Bongbong Marcos (since 2022)
Head of government party
Partido Federal ng Pilipinas (PFP)
Electoral system for lower or single chamber
Parallel
Women in lower or single chamber
27.3%
Women in upper chamber
29.2%
Last legislative election
2022
Head of state
President Bongbong Marcos
Selection process for head of state
Direct election (plurality)
Latest Universal Periodic Review (UPR) date
14/11/2022
Latest Universal Periodic Review (UPR) percentage of recommendations supported
74.4%
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Human Rights Treaties

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State Party State party
Signatory Signatory
No Action No action
United Nations Human Right Treaties
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
State Party
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
State Party
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
State Party
Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women
State Party
Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment or Punishment
State Party
Convention on the Rights of the Child
State Party
International Convention on Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families
State Party
International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance 
No Action
International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
State Party
International Labour Organisation Treaties
Forced Labour Convention
State Party
Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention
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Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining Convention
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Equal Remuneration Convention
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Abolition of Forced Labour Convention
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Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention
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Convention concerning Minimum Age for Admission to Employment
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Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention
State Party
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Performance by category over the last 6 months

Representation neutral Representation
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Representation neutral Rights
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Representation neutral Rule of law
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Representation neutral Participation
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Global State of Democracy Indices

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Explore the indices
Representation
Representation
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/1
high 0.7-1.0
mid 0.4-0.7
low 0.0-0.4
Rights
Rights
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high 0.7-1.0
mid 0.4-0.7
low 0.0-0.4
Rule of Law
Rule of Law
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high 0.7-1.0
mid 0.4-0.7
low 0.0-0.4
Participation
Participation
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high 0.7-1.0
mid 0.4-0.7
low 0.0-0.4

Factors of Democratic Performance Over Time

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