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Global overview of COVID-19 impact on elections

Global overview of COVID-19: Impact on elections

Elections postponed due to the outbreak of COVID-19 (coronavirus disease) span the globe. Here is a list of the current elections schedule and plans, as reported by governments, electoral management bodies, and news media. Please note that this list is not comprehensive but represents a snapshot of decisions and events across the globe.

Este panorama global sobre COVID-19 y las elecciones está disponible en español. 

This page was first published on 18 March 2020 and is updated on a regular basis based on International IDEA's research.
Please contact International IDEA via if any of the information requires further updates. 



From 21 February 2020 until 21 FEBRUARY 2022:

  • at least 80 countries and territories across the globe have decided to postpone national and subnational elections due to COVID-19, out of which at least  42 countries and territories have decided to postpone national elections and referendums;
  • at least 160 countries and territories have decided to hold national or subnational elections despite concerns related to COVID-19 of which at least 130 have held national elections or referendums;
    • at least, 65 countries and territories have held elections that were initially postponed due to concerns related to COVID-19 of which at least 33 have held national elections or referendums. 


Global Overview of COVID-19 Impact on Elections: Data Dashboard Glossary

Note: The section and dashboard that focuses on postponed and held elections will not be updated by International IDEA from 22 February 2022 onwards.  

Postponed elections due to COVID-19


  • Local by-elections for Metsimotlhabe and Boseja South wards, Botswana (originally scheduled for May 2020) moved to 18 December 2021.
  • Legislative elections, Chad (originally scheduled for 13 December 2020) postponed indefinitely. The election was previously scheduled for 24 October 2021
  • Parliamentary election, Ethiopia (originally scheduled for 29 August 2020) moved to 21 June 2021
  • Partial legislative election, Lékoni-Lékori (Akiéni), Gabon (originally scheduled for 4 and 18 April 2020) moved to 31 January 2021
  • National Assembly by-election, Niamina West constituency, Gambia (originally scheduled for 16 April 2020) moved to 7 November 2020
  • County Assembly and National Assembly by-elections, Kenya (originally scheduled for April, June–July 2020) moved to 15 December 2020
  • Midterm Senatorial elections and national referendum, Liberia (originally scheduled for 13 October 2020) moved to 8 December 2020
  • Municipal elections, Libya (originally scheduled 18 April 2020) moved to June 2020. Presidential elections, Libya (originally scheduled for 24 December 2021) (Not directly related to Covid-19)
  • Local elections, Niger (Originally scheduled for 1 November 2021) moved to 13 December 2021 (Not directly related to Covid-19)
  • Senatorial by-elections in Bayelsa, Imo and Plateau districts, Nigeria (originally scheduled for March 2020) moved to 5 December 2020 
  • City of Kigali Local Elections, Rwanda (originally scheduled for 30 December 2021)
  • Parliamentary elections, Somalia (originally scheduled for 27 November 2020) and Presidential elections (originally scheduled to take place before 8 February 2021) first moved to 25 July - 10 October 2021. Indirect Parliamentary and Presidential elections are have been postponed several times.  
  • All municipal by-elections and voter registration activities in South Africa (originally scheduled for March–May 2020) moved to 11 November 2020
  • Municipal in elections in Hassi El Ferid, and Jbeniana, Tunisia (originally scheduled for 28–29 March 2020) moved to 5 July 2020
  • Special interest groups elections, Uganda (originally scheduled for April–May 2020) moved to 11, 13, 17 August 2020
  • Rural district council by-election, ward 16 of Chiredzi, Zimbabwe (originally scheduled for 4 April 2020); Legislative and council by-elections, Zimbabwe (scheduled for 5 December 2020) suspended and then moved to 2021
  • Second round Presidential election, Sao Tome and Principe (scheduled for 8 August 2021) moved to 5 September 2021 (Not directly related to Covid-19)


  • Municipal elections, Río Cuarto, Córdoba province, Argentina (originally scheduled for 29 March 2020) moved to 27 September 2020, and then moved to 29 November 2020. Legislative elections, Argentina (originally scheduled for 24 October 2021) moved to 14 November 2021.
  • Local elections, Bahamas (originally scheduled for June 2020), moved to 27 January 2022.
  • General elections, Bolivia (originally scheduled for 3 May 2020 and  moved to 6 September 2020) and then moved again to18 October 2020; subnational elections in Bolivia (originally scheduled for March 2020)
  • Municipal elections, Brazil (originally scheduled for 4 and 25 October 2020) moved to 15 and 29 November 2020; Supplementary election for the position of Senator in Mato Grosso, Brazil (originally scheduled for 26 April 2020) moved to 15 November 2020 
  • By-elections in Victoria and Rossland, Canada (originally scheduled for 4 April 2020) moved to May 2021; referendum in Kamloops, Canada (originally scheduled for 4 April 2020) moved to May 2021; by-elections in Lytton, Canada (originally scheduled for 25 April 2020) moved to 19 December 2020; municipal elections, New Brunswick, Canada (originally scheduled for 11 May 2020) moved to 10 May 2021
  • Constitutional referendum, Chile (originally planned for 26 April 2020) moved to 25 October 2020, Election of Constitution Commission, Chile  (originally scheduled 10-11 April 2021) moved to 15-16 May 2021
  • Elections for the community action board, Colombia (originally scheduled for 26 April 2020) moved to 25 April 2021
  • Presidential and legislative elections, Dominican Republic (originally scheduled for 17 May 2020) moved to 5 July 2020
  • Second round of local elections in seven districts of French Guiana, overseas department and region of France (originally scheduled for 28 June 2020) canceled by decree 24 June 2020. The first-round and second-round of local elections are scheduled for 18 and 25 October 2020
  • Constitutional referendum, Haiti (originally scheduled for 25 April 2021) postponed indefinitely. The referendum was previously scheduled for  27 June 2021 and 26 September 2021 and 7 November 2021. Parliamentary elections, Haiti (originally scheduled for 27 October 2019) postponed indefinitely. The election was previously scheduled for 26 September 2021 and 7 November 2021. Presidential election, Haiti (originally scheduled for 7 November 2021) postponed indefinitely (Not directly related to Covid-19)
  • Local government elections, Jamaica (scheduled for 24 November 2020 moved to no later than 27 February 2022 and moved again to no later than February 2023)
  • Local elections in Coahuila and Hidalgo, Mexico (originally scheduled for 7 June 2020) moved to 18 October 2020
  • Primary elections in Paraguay (originally scheduled for 12 July 2020) moved  to 20 June 2021; Municipal Elections, Paraguay  (originally scheduled for 8 November 2020) moved to 10 October 2021
  • Local municipal elections in Chipao, Ayacucho district, Peru (originally scheduled for 29 March 2020) moved to 10 October 2021  
  • Single constituency referendum, Falkland Islands, UK Overseas Territory (originally scheduled for 26 March 2020) moved to 26 September 2020
  • Local (departmental and municipal) elections, Uruguay (originally scheduled for 10 May 2020) moved to 27 September 2020 
  • Primary elections in Puerto Rico, territory of the United States (originally scheduled for 29 March 2020) moved to 9 August 2020
  • Primary elections across the USA; several local elections around the country (originally scheduled for March–May 2020) moved to May-August 2020.


  • Local government elections in New South Wales, Australia  (originally scheduled for September 2020) moved initially to September 2021 was postponed again to  December 2021. Legislative council elections for the divisions of Rosevears and Huon, Tasmania, Australia (originally scheduled for 2 May 2020) moved to 1 August 2020
  • Parliamentary By-elections of Bogura-1 and Jashore-6 constituencies, Bangladesh (originally scheduled for 29 March 2020) moved to 14 July 2020. Elections of Chattagram City Cooperation, Bangladesh (originally scheduled for 29 March 2020)
  • Legislative Council election, Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region of China (originally scheduled for 6 September 2020) moved to 19 December 2021, Chief Executive Election (indirect), Hong Kong SAR of China (originally scheduled for 27 March 2022) moved to 8 May 2022.
  • Referendum, New Caledonia, special collectivity of France (originally scheduled for 6 September 2020) moved to 8 October 2020
  • Rajya Sabha  (indirect) elections, India (originally scheduled for 26 March 2020) moved to 19 June 2020; Gram panchayat elections in Karnataka state and Maharashtra states (originally planned between July and December 2020) moved to 15 January 2021. Rajasthan election of 129 urban local bodies, India (originally scheduled for August 2020) moved to 20 October 2020
  • Regional (local) elections, Indonesia (originally scheduled 23 September 2020) moved to 9 December 2020
  • Parliamentary By-elections, Batu Sapi, Malaysia (originally scheduled 5 December 2020), Parliamentary by-election for Gerik in Perak and the state by-election for Bugaya in Sabah, Malaysia (originally scheduled for 16 January 2021).
  • Local council and Women’s Development Committee (WDC) elections, Maldives (originally scheduled for 4 April 2020) moved to 3 April 2021
  • General election, New Zealand (originally scheduled for 19 September 2020) moved to 17 October 2020
  • Parliamentary elections, Kiribati (originally scheduled for 7 April 2020) moved to 14 April 2020
  • Local elections, Kyrgyzstan (originally scheduled for 12 April 2020) moved to 11 April 2021, Repeat Parliamentary elections, Kyrgyzstan (originally scheduled for 20 December 2020) moved to 1 June 2021 and then moved again to 28 November 2021 (Not directly related to Covid-19)
  • By-elections, Pakistan (originally scheduled for March 2020); Gilgit-Baltistan assembly elections, Pakistan (originally scheduled for 2 July 2020) moved to 18 August 2020 but postponed and moved to 15 November 2020, National and Provincial Assembly By-election, Pakistan (originally scheduled for 31 December 2020) moved to among other 16 and 19 February 2021 
  • Palawan Plebiscite, the Philippines (originally scheduled for 11 May 2020) moved to 13 March 2021 
  • Government General Elections, Autonomous Bougainville Papua New Guinea (originally scheduled for June 2020) moved to 12 August - 1 September 2020
  • By-elections for Central Honiara and North East Guadalcanal Constituencies, Solomon Islands (originally scheduled for June 2020) moved to 18 November 2020
  • Parliamentary elections, Sri Lanka (originally scheduled for 25 April 2020) moved to 5 August 2020​
  • Special election for Yona mayor, Guam, territory of the United States (originally scheduled for 28 March 2020) moved  to 30 May 2020
  • National referendum, Taiwan (originally scheduled for 28 August 2021) moved to 18 December 2021


  • Referendum on changes to the Constitutional Court, Armenia (originally scheduled for 5 April 2020) moved to summer 2021
  • Local elections in Vorarlberg and Styria, Austria (originally scheduled for 15 March 2020 and 22 March 2020) moved (Styria) to 28 June 2020
  • Local elections, Bosnia and Herzegovina (originally scheduled for 4 October 2020) moved to 15 November 2020
  • Local elections in the Isle of Man, self-governing British Crown Dependency (originally scheduled for 23 April 2020) proposed for 22 July 2021
  • General election, Guernsey, self-governing British Crown Dependency (originally planned for June 2020) moved to 7 October 2020
  • Turkish Cypriot leadership election in Cyprus (originally planned for 26 April 2020) moved to 11 October 2020
  • Senate by-elections, Teplice Czech Republic (originally scheduled for 27–28 March and 3–4 April 2020) moved to 5-6 June and 13 June 2020
  • Municipal Elections, Finland (originally scheduled for 18 April 2021) moved to 13 June 2021
  • Second round of local elections in France (originally scheduled for 22 March 2020) moved to 28 June 2020, Regional and departmental elections, France (originally scheduled for March 2021) moved to 20 June 2021
  • Election of French overseas advisers and consular delegates (originally scheduled for 16-17 May 2020)
  • Local elections in Hessen and Saxony, Germany (originally scheduled for April–October 2020) moved (Hessen) to 14 March 2021
  • National referendum, Italy (originally scheduled for 29 March 2020) moved to 20/21 September 2020, in addition to numerous regional and local elections moved to 20/21 September 2020. Mayoral elections in Rome, Milan, Turin and Naples, Italy  (originally scheduled for 15 April – 15 June 2021) moved 15 September and 15 October 2021. 
  • Extraordinary election for Mayor of the city of Podujeva, Kosovo (originally scheduled for 15 March 2020) moved to 29 November 2020
  • Local snap elections for city council in Riga, Latvia (originally scheduled for 25 April 2020) moved to 29 August 2020
  • Local elections village Nucareni, district Telenesti and village Tirnova, district Donduseni, Moldova (originally scheduled for 17 May 2020) moved to 6 September 2020
  • Local elections in Tivat, Montenegro (originally scheduled for 5 April 2020) moved to 30 August 2020
  • Parliamentary elections in North Macedonia (originally scheduled for 12 April 2020) moved to 15 July 2020
  • Presidential elections, Poland (originally scheduled for 10 May 2020) moved to 28 June 2020 and 12 July 2020
  • Local elections in Romania (originally scheduled for June 2020) moved to 27 September 2020
  • Constitutional nation-wide referendum in Russia (originally scheduled for 22 April 2020) moved to 1 July 2020. The Central Election Commission of Russia took the decision (3 April 2020) to postpone all elections initially scheduled in the period 5 April–23 June, covering about 94 electoral processes at local and regional levels
  • General elections in Serbia (originally scheduled for 26 April 2020) moved to 21 June 2020
  • Elections for local self-governing bodies, Slovakia (originally scheduled 4 April 2020) moved to 3 October 2020
  • Regional elections in Euskadi/Basque and Galicia, Spain (originally scheduled for 5 April 2020) moved to 12 July 2020
  • Local referendum, Malung-Sälen, Sweden​ (originally scheduled for 17 May 2020) moved to 27 September 2020 
  • Federal vote, Switzerland (originally scheduled for 17 May 2020) moved to 27 September 2020 and several local (municipal) elections in the cantons of NeuchâtelTicino, and Luzern (originally scheduled for April–June 2020)
  • Local elections in 118 English councils, the London Assembly and for seven English regional mayors as well as police and crime commissioners in England, UK (originally scheduled for the first week of May 2020) moved to May 2021; elections of police and crime commissioners in Wales, UK (originally scheduled for the first week of May 2020) moved to May 2021; local government by-elections in Kincorth/Nigg/Cove and Craigentinny/Duddingston, Scotland, UK (originally scheduled for 14 and 21 May 2020) moved to 5 November 2020 (Kincort/Nigg/Cove) and moved (Craigentinny/Duddinston) to 12 November 2020
  • Referendum on abortion, Gibraltar, UK Overseas Territory (originally scheduled for 19 March 2020) moved to 24 June 2021

Middle East

  • Second round of parliamentary elections, Iran (originally scheduled for 17 April 2020) moved to 11 September 2020
  • Municipal council elections, Oman (originally scheduled for 2020)
  • Parliamentary elections, Syria (originally scheduled for 13 April 2020) moved to 19 July 2020
  • Parliament elections, Palestine (originally scheduled for 22 May 2021) with no new date (Not directly related to Covid-19), Presidential elections, Palestine (originally scheduled for 31 July 2021) with no new date (Not directly related to Covid-19) 
  • General election, Iraq (originally scheduled for 6 June 2021) moved to 10 October 2021 (Not directly related to Covid-19)


Elections held amid COVID-19

Examples of elections and referendums that proceeded in February 2020 include parliamentary elections, Iran (21 February 2020); local by-elections in Taiwan (22 February 2020); presidential election, Togo (22 February 2020); general elections, Slovakia (29 February 2020).

Examples of elections and referendums that proceeded in March 2020 include: local elections in Queensland, Australia (29 March 2020); Parliamentary by-elections: Gaibandha-3, Bagerhat-4 & Dhaka-3 and number local government elections, Bangladesh (21 March 2020); parliamentary election rerun in 11 constituencies in Cameroon (22 March 2020); council election, Canada (26 March 2020); municipal elections in the Dominican Republic (15 March 2020); first round of local elections in France (15 March 2020); local elections in Bavaria, Germany (first round 16 March 2020 and second round 29 March 2020); Legislative elections  and constitutional referendum in Guinea (22 March 2020); general elections in Guyana (2 March 2020); Seanad   general election (partially indirect), Ireland (30-31 March 2020); legislative elections in Israel (2 March 2020); general elections in Mali (29 March 2020); local elections in Hâncești, Moldova (15 March 2020); six by-elections in Poland (22 March 2020); local elections in Luzern, Switzerland (29 March 2020); kuomintang chairperson elections, Taiwan (7 March 2020); parliamentary elections, Tajikistan (1 March 2020); parliamentary by-elections in the single-mandate district No. 179 in the Kharkiv region, Ukraine (15 March 2020); primary elections in Arizona, Florida and Illinois, USA (17 March 2020); General elections in Vanuatu (19 March 2020).

Examples of elections and referendums that proceeded in April 2020 include: local by-elections and lower house by-election, Japan (April 2020); parliamentary elections in Kiribati*(14 April 2020); parliamentary elections (second round) in Mali (19 April 2020); parliamentary elections in South Korea (15 April 2020); second round municipal elections in Geneva, Switzerland (4 April 2020) by postal voting only; democratic primary elections in Wisconsin, USA (7 April 2020); special congressional election, Maryland, USA (28 April 2020); primary elections* in Ohio, USA (28 April 2020).

Examples of elections and referendums that proceeded in May 2020 include: local elections in Benin (17 May 2020); Presidential elections in Burundi (20 May 2020); Biennial Election to the Maharashtra Legislative Councils by the members of Legislative Assembly (unopposed), India (21 May 2020); local government election, Cross River State, Nigeria (30 May 2020); general elections, Niue (30 May 2020); general elections in Suriname (25 May 2020). 

Examples of elections and referendums that proceeded in June 2020 include: primary elections in 8 states and Washington D.C.*, USA (2 June 2020); Senate by-elections, Teplice, Czech Republic* (5-6 June and 13 June 2020); municipal recall vote, Taiwan (6 June 2020); National Assembly Elections, Saint Kitts and Nevis (6 June 2020), primary elections, Georgia, Nevada, North Dakota, South Carolina and West Virginia*, USA (9 June 2020);  Rajya Sabha* (indirect), India (19 June 2020), Parliamentary, provincial and local elections*, Serbia (21 June 2020), Presidential elections, Kiribati (22 June 2020), Presidential election rerun, Malawi (23 June 2020), primary elections in 6 states, USA* (23 June 2020), Parliamentary elections, Mongolia (24 June 2020), Presidential elections, Iceland (27 June 2020), Styrian municipal elections, Austria*  (28 June 2020), second round of local elections, France* (28 June 2020), Presidential elections, Poland* (28 June 2020), General elections, Anguilla, British overseas territory (29 July 2020).

Examples of elections and referendums that proceeded in July 2020 include: Constitutional nation-wide referendum, Russia* (1 July 2020); federal by-election, Eden-Monaro, New South Wales, Australia (4 July 2020); state assembly by-election, state of Pahang, Malaysia (4 July 2020); Parliamentary elections, Croatia (5 July 2020); gubernational elections, Tokyo, Japan  (5 July 2020); Presidential and legislative elections elections, Dominican Republic*  (5 July 2020); Municipal by-elections in Hassi El Ferid, Tunisia* (6 July 2020); Parliamentary elections, Singapore (10 July 2020); Second round Presidential elections, Poland* (12 July 2020) Regional elections in Euskadi/Basque and Galicia, Spain* (12 July 2020); Primary elections and runoffs in Texas, Alabama and Maine, USA* (14 July 2020); Parliamentary by-elections of Bogura-1 and Jashore-6 constituencies, Bangladesh* (14 July 2020); Parliamentary elections, North Macedonia* (15 July 2020), Parliamentary elections,  Syria* (19 July 2020).

Examples of elections and referendums that proceeded in August 2020 include: Legislative Council election, Tasmania*, Australia  (1 August 2020); Parliamentary elections, Sri Lanka* (5 August 2020), Nasarawa constituency by-election, Nigeria (8 August 2020), Primary elections, Puerto Rico* , territory of the USA (9 August 2020), Presidential election, Belarus (9 August 2020), General election, Trinidad and Tobago (10 August 2020), General elections, Autonomous Bougainville, Papua New Guinea* (12 August – 1 September 2020), Senate elections, first round, Egypt (11-12 August 2020), Special Interest Group Elections, Uganda* (11, 13, 17 August 2020), Primary elections, Florida and Wyoming*, USA (18 August 2020), State legislative elections, Northern Territory, Australia (22 August 2020), State of Perak, Malaysia (State Assembly by-election, 29 August 2020); Local snap elections for city council in Riga, Latvia* (29 August 2020), Parliamentary elections, Montenegro (30 August 2020) including local elections in Tivat*, National referendum, Liechtenstein (30 August 2020), Special elections for Yona Mayor, Guam*, territory of the United States, (30 August 2020).

Examples of elections and referendums that proceeded in September 2020 include: Parliamentary elections, Jamaica (3 September 2020), local elections in Nucăreni and Tîrnova, Moldova* (6 September 2020),  Senate elections, second round, Egypt (8-9 September 2020), Parliamentary elections, second round, Iran * (11 September 2020), Local elections, Russia, some local elections were held after being postponed in April and May 2020* (13 September 2020), Local elections, North-Rhine Westphalia, Germany (13 September 2020), Edo state election, Nigeria (19 September 2020), Regional elections and constitutional referendum, Italy* (20-21 September 2020), Referendum, Falkland Islands*, UK Overseas Territory (24 September 2020), State Assembly elections, Sabah, Malaysia (26 September 2020), Local election, Uruguay* (27 September 2020), Referendum, Switzerland* (27 September 2020), Local elections, Romania* (27 September 2020) State and local elections, Saxony and Brandenburg, Germany (27 September 2020), Local referendum, Malung-Sälen, Sweden* (27 September 2020), Senate election (indirect), France (27 September 2020), Rajasthan panchayat elections, India* (28 September 2020).

Examples of elections and referendums that proceeded in October 2020 include: General elections, Bermuda, British Overseas Territory (1 October 2020), Regional and Senate elections, Czech Republic (2-3 October 2020), Local elections*, Slovakia (3 October 2020), Referendum, New Caledonia*, special collectivity of France (4 October 2020), Parliamentary elections, Kyrgyzstan (4 October 2020) General election, Guernsey*, self-governing British Crown Dependency (7 October 2020) Ondo state governorship elections, Nigeria (10 October 2020), Presidential elections, Tajikistan (11 October 2020), Parliamentary elections, Lithuania (11 October 2020), Turkish Cypriot leadership election, Northern Cyprus* (11 October 2020), General Election and Referendum New Zealand* (17 October 2020), Legislative elections, Australia Capital Territory,  Australia (17 October 2020), Local elections in Coahuila, Mexico* (18 October 2020),  Presidential election, Guinea (18 October 2020), General elections, Bolivia* (18 October 2020), Presidential elections, Seychelles (22-24 October), Local elections, Ukraine (25 October 2020) Municipal elections, Cape Verde (25 October 2020), Referendum, Chile* (25 October 2020), Saskatchewan provincial elections,  Canada (26 October 2020), General elections, Tanzania (28 October 2020), Parliamentary elections, Georgia  (31 October 2020), State elections Queensland, Australia (31 October 2020), Presidential election, Côte d'Ivoire (31 October 2020).

Examples of elections and referendums that proceeded in November 2020 include: Presidential election, Moldova (1 November 2020), Constitutional Referendum, Algeria (1 November 2020), General election, USA (3 November 2020), General election, Palau (3 November 2020), Gubernational,  Puerto-Rico, a territory of the USA (4 November 2020), By-elections,  Parliamentary elections, Egypt (24-25 October and  7-8 November 2020), The Gambia* (7 November 2020), Bihar legislative assembly elections, India (28 October, 3 and 7 November 2020), General elections, Myanmar (8 November 2020), Gubernational elections, American Samoa unincorporated territory of the USA (8 November 2020), Parliamentary elections, Jordan (10 November 2020), General elections, Belize (11 November 2020), By-elections, South Africa* (11 November 2020), Local elections, Bosnia and Herzegovina* (15 November 2020), Municipal elections, Brazil* (15 and 29 November 2020), Gilgit-Baltistan assembly elections, Pakistan* (15 November 2020), Presidental election (second round), Moldova (15 November 2020), By-elections for Central Honiara and North East Guadalcanal Constituencies, Solomon Islands* (18 November 2020), Local elections, French Guiana*, overseas department and region of France (18 October 2020), General elections, Burkina Faso (22 November 2020), Regional Council and Local Authority elections, Namibia (25 November 2020), Municipal elections, Río Cuarto, Córdoba province, Argentina* (29 November 2020), Mayoral election in Podujeva, Kosovo* (29 November).

Examples of elections and referendums that proceeded in December 2020 include: Parliamentary elections, Kuwait (5 December 2020), Parliamentary elections, Romania (6 December 2020), Parliamentary elections, Venezuela (6 December 2020). By-elections in Bayelsa Central, Bayelsa West, Cross River North, Imo North, Lagos East and Plateau South senatorial districts, Nigeria* (5 December 2020), General election, Ghana (7 December 2020), Mid-term senatorial election and national referendum, Liberia* (8 December 2020), Regional elections, Indonesia* (9 December 2020), Local elections, Municipal by-election, Victoria, Canada* (12 December 2020), Niger (13 December 2020), By-election, Kenya* (15 December 2020), By-elections, Village of Lytton, British Colombia, Canada* (19 December 2020), Provincial elections, Thailand (20 December 2020), Presidential and legislative election, Niger (27 December 2020), Presidential and legislative election, Central African Republic (27 December 2020). 

Examples of elections and referendums that proceeded in January 2021 include: Georgia senate run-off elections, USA (5 January 2021), Presidential election, Kyrgyzstan (10 January 2021), Parliamentary election, Kazakhstan (10 January 2021), General elections, Uganda (14 January 2021), Local elections in Gram Panchayat, India* (15 January 2021), Presidential elections, Portugal (24 January 2021), House of Assembly elections, Tobago (25 January 2021) 

Examples of elections and referendums that proceeded in February 2021 include: Parliamentary elections, Lichtenstein (7 February), Presidential and Parliament elections, Ecuador (7 February 2020), Catalonia regional elections, Spain (14 February 2020), By-elections Sindh and Balochistan Assembly, Pakistan*, (16 February 2021), Turks and Caicos Islands, British Overseas Territory (19 February 2021), Laos (Parliament elections, 21 February 2021), Presidential elections, second round, Niger (21 February 2021), Parliamentary elections, El Salvador (28 February 2021).

Examples of elections and referendums that proceeded in March 2021 include: Congress election, Micronesia (2 March 2021), Legislative elections, Côte d’Ivoire (6 March 2021), Palawan Plebiscite, the Philippines* (13 March 2021), State elections, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany (14 March 2021), State elections, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany (14 March 2021), Parliamentary elections, Curaçao, constituent country of the Netherlands (19 March 2021), House of Representatives elections, Netherlands (17-19 March 2021), Machakos Senate by-election, Kenya (18 March 2021), Presidential elections, Republic of the Congo (21 March 2021), Parliament elections,  Israel  (23 March 2021), 

Examples of elections and referendums that proceeded in April 2021 include: Assembly elections in Assam, Kerala, Puducherry, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, India (6 – 29 April 2021). Parliamentary elections, Bulgaria (4 April 2021), Legislative elections, Greenland (6 April 2021), General elections, Samoa (9 April 2021), Local elections, Maldives (10 April 2021) Local elections *  and the constitutional referendum, Kyrgyzstan (11 April 2021), Presidential elections, Chad (11 April 2021), Presidential and Parliamentary elections, Peru (11 April 2021),  Presidential elections, second round, Ecuador (11 April 2021), General elections, Cayman Islands (14 April 2021), Parliamentary elections, Cape Verde (18 April 2021), Parliamentary elections, Albania (25 April 2021), Parliamentary by-elections, Japan (25 April  2021).

Examples of elections and referendums that proceeded in May 2021 include: Local, Mayoral* and Parliamentary elections, United Kingdom (6 May 2021),  Municipal elections, New Brunswick, Canada* (10 May 2021), Election for the members of the Constitutional Convention, Chile* (15 and 16 May 2021), Sametinget, Sweden (16 May 2021), Local elections, Croatia (16 and 30 May 2021), Parliament elections, Vietnam (23 May 2021), Presidential elections, Syria (26 May 2021), Parliamentary elections, Cyprus (30 May 2021), French overseas advisors and consular elections* (29 – 30 May 2021), Parliamentary and local elections, Somaliland (31 May 2021)

Examples of elections and referendums that proceeded in June 2021 include: Municipal Council elections, Latvia (5 June 2021), Legislative elections, Mexico (6 June 2021), Presidential runoff, Peru (6 June 2021), Saxon-Anhalt state elections, Germany (6 June 2021), Presidential election, Mongolia (9 June 2021), Parliament elections, Algeria (12 June 2021), Referendum, Switzerland (13 June 2021), Local elections, Finland* (14 June 2021), Iran (Presidential elections, 18 June 2021), France* (Regional and departmental elections, 20 June 2021), Armenia (Parliamentary elections, 20 June 2021), Ethiopia* (General elections, 21 June 2021), Referendum, Gibraltar*, British Overseas Territory (24 June 2021), Parliamentary elections, Aruba, Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands (25 June 2021)

Examples of elections and referendums that proceeded in July 2021 include: Parliamentary elections, Bulgaria (11 July 2021), Parliamentary elections, Moldova (11 July 2021), Referendum, Slovenia (11 July 2021), Presidential elections,  São Tomé and Príncipe ( 18 July 2021), Local elections in the Isle of Man*, Self-Governing British Crown Dependency (22 July 2021), General elections,  Saint Lucia (26 July 2021)

Examples of elections and referendums that proceeded in August 2021 include: Referendum, Mexico (1 August 2021), Presidential elections, Zambia (12 August 2021), Yokohama mayoral elections, Japan (22 August 2021), Northern Territory local government elections, Australia (27 August 2021) 

Examples of elections and referendums that proceeded in September 2021 include: Second round Presidential election, Sao Tome and Principe (5 September 2021), General elections, Morocco (8 September 2021), Legislative elections, Macau (12 September 2021), General elections, Norway (13 September), Legislative elections, Russia (17-19 September 2021), General elections, Canada (20 September 2021), General elections, Isle of Man (23 September 2021), Parliamentary elections, Iceland (25 September 2021), Local Elections, Portugal (26 September 2021), Referendum, Switzerland (26 September 2021), Federal elections, Germany (26 September 2021)

Examples of elections and referendums that proceeded in October 2021 include: Municipal elections, Georgia (2 October 2021), Legislative elections, Qatar (3 October 2021), General election, Czech Republic (8-9 October 2021), Municipal elections, Paraguay* (10 October 2021), Parliamentary election, Iraq* (10 October 2021), Local municipal elections in Chipao, Ayacucho district, Peru* (10 October 2021),   Presidential elections, Cape Verde (17 October 2021), Local elections, Estonia (17 October 2021), Local elections, North Macedonia (17 October 2021), Local elections, Kosovo (17 October 2021), Presidential elections, Uzbekistan (24 October 2021), General elections, Japan (31 October 2021)

Examples of elections and referendums that proceeded in November 2021 include: Local elections, South Africa (1 November 2021), Parliamentary elections (indirect), Somalia* (1 November – 24 December 2021),Gubernatorial elections, USA (2 November 2021), Legislative assembly elections, Falkland Islands (4 November 2021), General elections, Nicaragua (7 November 2021), Legislative elections, Argentina* (14 November 2021), General elections, Bulgaria (14 November 2021), Local elections, Denmark (16 November 2021), General elections, Tonga (18 November 2021), Regional and local elections, Venezuela (21 November 2021), Presidential and Parliamentary elections, Chile (21 November 2021), Election of Community Action Boards, Colombia* (28 November 2021), General election, Honduras (28 November 2021), Parliamentary elections, Kyrgyzstan* (28 November 2021)

Examples of elections and referendums that proceeded in December 2021 include: Local elections, New South Wales, Australia* (4 December 2021), Presidential election, the Gambia (5 December 2021), Local elections, Palestine (11 December 2021), Referendum, New Caledonia (12 December 2021), Referendum, Taiwan* (18 December 2021), Local by-elections, Botswana* (18 December 2021), Legislative Council elections, Hong Kong*, SAR of China (19 December 2021)

Examples of elections and referendums that proceeded in January 2022 include: Referendum, Serbia (16 January 2022), General elections, Barbados (19 January 2022), County elections, Finland  (23 January 2022), Local elections, Senegal (23 January 2022), Parliamentary elections, Northern Cyprus (23 January 2022), National Assembly by-elections, Nepal (26 January 2022), Local government elections, Bahamas* (27 Jan 2022), Parliamentary election, Portugal (30 January 2022) 

Examples of elections and referendums that proceeded in February 2022 include: General elections, Costa Rica (6 February 2022), Legislative Assembly Elections, Uttar Pradesh, India (10 February – 7 March 2022), Referendum, Switzerland (13 February 2022), Legislative Assembly Elections, Goa and Uttarakhand, India (14 February 2022)



All elections marked with an asterisk/star (*) were originally postponed (see Postponed elections due to COVID-19).

 Note: election postponements  during the Covid-19 pandemic (22 October 2021)  



Featured Cases 


Voter turnout trends

Source: Voter Turnout Database


International IDEA’s analyses and publications on COVID-19 and elections

This segment includes a summary of the latest analysis and publications published by International IDEA on COVID-19 and elections.



Case Studies 

Webinars, podcasts, and media appearances:



Additional analysis and publications:

Global Overview Language Versions



Creator and lead editor: Erik Asplund

Design and Communication: Ingrid Bicu and Yasnaya Guibert Masso

Regional Advisors: Olufunto Akinduro (Africa), Adhy Aman (Asia-Pacific), Nana Kalandadze (Europe) and Emna Zghonda (Arab World).

Academic Leads: Toby S. James and Alistair Clark

Case Study Authors: Fortune Agbele and Ghadafi Saibu (University of Bayreuth, Germany), Saket Ambarkhane (India International Institute of Democracy & Election Management, India), Zemelak Ayitenew Ayele (Addis Ababa University), Jordi Barrat, (Rovira i Virgili University, Spain), Luke Butcher (Former NEC), María Celeste Ratto ((IIDyPCA and CONICET), Alistair Clark (Newcastele University),  Nic Cheeseman (University of Birmingham), Pamela Figueroa (Universidad De Santiago, Chile), Holly Ann Garnett, Jean-Nicolas Bordeleau, Allison Harell and Laura Stephenson (Consortium on Electoral Democracy), Robert Gerenge (African Union), Toby S. James (UEA), Ofer Kenig (Ashkelon Academic College, Israel), Iuliia Krivonosova (Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia), Michael Lidauer and Gilles Saphy, (international elections experts), Leontine Loeber (Coucil of State of the Neatherlands), Carla Luis (Centre for Social Studies, University of Coimbra, Portugal), Zaad Mahmood (Presidency University, India), Ferran Martinez i Coma (Griffith University, Australia), Fida Nasrallah (International elections expert), Romain Rambaud (Université Grenoble-Alpes, France), Edalina Rodrigues Sanches (Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal), Ibrahim Sani (Independent National Electoral Commission, Nigeria), Antonio Spinelli (International IDEA), Charles Stewart III (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), Kate Sullivan, (international elections expert), Gabriela Tarouco (Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Brazil), Rebecca Wagner (Peace Research Institute in Frankfurt, Germany), Vasil Vashchanka (international elections expert) 

Featured Cases (country briefs): Fakiha Ahmed, Adhy Aman, Amna Amin, Najlah Ashrafi, Ana Blanco, Thomas Bolding, Lisa Danielsson, Anna Djurberg, Andre Durante, Abigail Glickman, Andreas Haugen, Ida Hedenskog, Anika Heinma, Lars Heuver, Max Jakobsen,  Amanda Lanigan, Bianca Lapuz, Hyowon Park, Eleonora Pettenuzzo, Oliver Joseph, Nana Kalandadze,  Kallie Mitchell,  Saba Muneer, Tanushree Rao, Bor Stevense, David Towriss,  Sulemana Umar, Carolyne Wilhelm, Peter Wolf, Tori Wyman,  and Emna Zghonda.  

Translations: Yasnaya Guibert Masso (Spanish), Nana Kalandadze (Russian), Independent Electoral Commission – Jordan (Arabic), Perludem (Bahasa Indonesia)

Dashboards: David Towriss, Diwas Pant, Robin Watts, Gentiana Gola, Erik Asplund 

Voter turnout trends: Abdurashid Solijonov

Thanks: Sead Alihodzic,  Miguel Ángel Lara Otaola, Iida Hyyryläinen, Tendai Chinamora-Jönsson, Carolina Floru, Lourdes Gonzalez Prieto, Therese Pearce-Laanela, Andrew Robertson, Lynn Simmonds, Robin Watts, Antonio Spinelli and Tahseen Zayouna. 


To cite this report: International IDEA, Asplund, E. (editor), Global overview of Covid-19: Impact on elections, 18 March 2020 (and updated)




    Important media used this website page as a reference for opinion articles, news and reports. See media mentions of the Global overview of COVID-19: Impact on elections, between March and December 2020.



    Elections and Covid-19: international electoral observation in 2020

    Election Observation Missions (EOMs) have become an established part of the international electoral scene. Elections around the world have increasingly been observed, meaning that election observation has become widely accepted around the world and is commonly described as an international norm. It provides a way of collecting information about problems in the electoral process, such as election rigging and the denial of democratic rights.



    Elections and Covid-19: How special voting arrangements were expanded in 2020

    There is considerable variation in how citizens cast their ballot around the world during ‘normal times’. The traditional vision of an election is that citizens vote at polling stations using a paper ballot. However, modern technology has enabled voting at electronic kiosks and even remote internet voting. Elections have increasingly been made more convenient by allowing citizens to cast their vote ahead of election day, via the post or even by bringing the ballot box to the voter’s home. These have often been found to promote voter turnout.



    Elections and Covid-19: Health and safety in polling stations

    At the start of the pandemic, many countries postponed elections. From June 2020, the trend shifted to holding elections. Thanks to information sharing and peer-to-peer exchanges, election authorities gained an understanding of the risks and prevention/mitigation measures. To date, more than 100 countries and territories have held national or subnational elections that were either on schedule or initially postponed with health and safety measuresBut what measures have been introduced so far? What measures have been adopted by countries that have held elections? Are the measures respected by stakeholders? Was voting safe?


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    Elections and COVID-19: How election campaigns took place in 2020

    The COVID-19 pandemic has placed a profound strain on electoral democracy worldwide. Many elections have been postponed, while others have been held with adaptation. One key aspect of the democratic process that has been thought to be affected by the pandemic is electoral campaigning. Campaigns are opportunities for political parties and candidates to spread their ideas about how public policies should change—or remain the same—in the future. Campaigns allow public conversations and deliberation about the future of the country. They allow citizens to weigh up their options when they arrive at the ballot box in a more informed way. Campaigns also play a critical performative role in democracy. They are rituals that signal that the democratic process is underway.