Thirty years on from its initial democratic transition and after several changes of system, Mongolians are still seeking to improve the electoral process by addressing the mechanism for converting votes cast in elections to seats gained in the Great Hural. There is particular interest in mixed systems.

The report seeks neither to advocate, nor to discourage the adoption of a mixed system instead, it describes the detailed design choices that flow from the adoption of a mixed system, and illuminates their possible effects both generally and in the specific Mongolian context.


Publication date
15 March 2023
Andrew Ellis
Number of pages
978-91-7671-609-0 (PDF)
978-91-7671-610-6 (Print)

Related databases & tools


1. Parallel or mixed member proportional?

2. The Mongolian context

3. Electoral system design in the constitution

4. Summary

Annex 1. Mixed electoral systems: Simple examples and resources

Annex 2. Mixed system resources and simulations

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Mixed Electoral Systems

Design and Practice
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