The end-game of violent conflict is perhaps the most difficult phase of transformation in a hugely difficult process.

In that phase, parties need two overall aids. They need to be able to avail themselves of the most effective and appropriate dialogue process to facilitate their negotiations; and they then need to successfully negotiate a sustainable settlement by putting in place effective and appropriate democratic structures and political institutions.

This Handbook provides practical advice on how to broker peace in countries emerging from deep-rooted conflict and outlines options negotiators can draw upon when trying to build or rebuild democracy. It includes a thorough overview of democratic levers, including power-sharing formulas, questions of federalism and autonomy, options for minority rights, constitutional safeguards and many others.

The Handbook also analyses actual negotiated settlements in countries including Bosnia and Herzegovina, Fiji, Northern Ireland, Guatemala, Sri Lanka, Papua New Guinea and South Africa. Written by international experts and experienced negotiators, the Handbook is designed as a quick reference tool containing numerous case studies, fact sheets and practical examples.


Publication date
01 January 1998
Peter Harris, Ben Reilly
Number of pages
91-89098-22-6 (Print)


Overview summary




1: The changing nature of conflict and conflict management

2. Analysing deep-rooted conflict

3. Negotiation processes

4. Democratic levers for conflict management

5. Sustaining the democratic settlement


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Democracy and Deep-Rooted Conflict

Options for Negotiators
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