Direct public participation is a feature of almost every exercise in constitution-building in the 21st century.

This issue of Constitutional INSIGHTS examines three different forms of direct public participation in constitution-building—consultation, deliberation and decision-making—and identifies ways to promote inclusive and meaningful direct public participation.


Publication date
22 September 2020
Anna Dziedzic
Number of pages
Constitution Transformation Network



1. Purpose of public participation

2. Critiques and meaningful public participation

3. Types of direct public participation

4. Deciding what type of direct public participation to use

5. Inclusive participation

6. A sign of the times

References and further reading

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Consultation, Deliberation and Decision-Making: Direct Public Participation in Constitution-Building

Melbourne Forum Constitutional INSIGHTS No. 4
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