Internal pressures and advocacy for change have raised awareness and precipitated debates about the nature and need for reform processes in many Arab countries.

Such debates have drawn in a diverse range of groups articulating interests and defining their own political programmes. In this context, electoral processes, women's participation and political parties have emerged as central issues in political reform agendas in the Arab world.

This report is one of the outcomes of the project carried out by International IDEA, in cooperation with the Arab NGO Network for Development (ANND), aimed at discussing democratic reform in Egypt, Jordan and Yemen. The aim of the project has been to contribute comparative analysis and information on good practice so as to enrich debate on democratic reform in the three countries.

The project focused on three interconnected themes seen as entry points to help establish a reform-oriented agenda: electoral system reform, the political participation of women and the development of political parties. The challenges, opportunities and recommendations identified in the report are the result of the work of research teams in each of the three countries together with the contributions made during the regional meetings organized by the project.


Publication date
01 May 2005
Number of pages
91-85391-36-0 (Print)


Introduction and Executive Summary
Ziad Majed

1. Women, Politics and Modernization in Egypt
Hala Mustafa

2. Political Parties in Egypt
Abd al-Ghaffar Shukor

3. Electoral Systems and Parliamentary Elections in Egypt
Amre Hashem Rabi’

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Building Democracy in Egypt: Women's Political Participation, Political Party Life and Democratic Elections

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