The participants of the third annual Women Constitution-Makers’ Dialogue explored comparative constitutional design approaches to legal pluralism and reconciling tensions between customary/religious systems and guarantees of gender equality and non-discrimination. In addition to technical issues, the discussion also addressed successes and challenges associated with implementation of constitutional guarantees of gender equality and explored innovative approaches to harmonization, transformation and empowerment.


Publication date
14 September 2022
Rhys Ainsworth, Sharon P. Hickey
Number of pages
Peace and Conflict Resolution Evidence Platform, Edinburgh Centre for Constitutional Law
978-91-7671-565-9 (PDF)



1. Discussion themes: constitutions, customary and religious law, and gender equality

2. Lessons learned: coalition-building and transforming culture to advance gender equality

3. Conclusion

Annex A. Programme

Annex B. List of participants

About the authors

About the partners

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Constitutions, Customary and Religious Law, and Gender Equality

Reconciling Rights in Constitutional Design Negotiations
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