As the result of a decade-long civil war that ended in 2005, the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal changed from a monarchy to a multiparty representative democratic republic in 2008. In 2004, International IDEA and the State of Democracy in South Asia/Nepal Chapter carried out a survey on the state of democracy in Nepal. Three years later, they conducted a follow-up survey to gauge changing perceptions of democracy. The 2004 assessment, done at a time of armed conflict and civil war, set a precedent for research to be performed in conflict areas, which had previously been excluded. The 2004 and 2007 assessments revealed cultural shifts; those surveyed were substantially more committed to democratic ideals and a progressive agenda in 2007 than in 2004. The 2007 assessment was also instrumental in setting an agenda for the post-conflict reconstruction of the Nepali state after its political transition. The findings of both assessments were debated publicly in print and electronic media.
In June 2013, the interim government of Nepal announced that elections for a new Constituent Assembly would be held in November of that year, as any further postponement of the election would only deepen the current political crisis. In this context, the State of Democracy in South Asia/Nepal Chapter of the Nepal Center for Contemporary Studies and International IDEA undertook a third field-based survey, The Citizen Survey: Nepal in Transition in 2013, to explore citizens’ views on the current democratic processes. This survey analysed responses to the same set of questions asked during the first two assessments.
The state of democracy in Nepal was also assessed in the region-wide State of Democracy in South Asia report. This is the only regional report to date that has been produced as a result of the cooperation of experts from India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Bangladesh. The State of Democracy in South Asia project sought to locate democracy in the context of that region in order to discover what South Asians think about democracy and how they have adapted its ideas to their specific circumstances.