How does a newly democratized nation constructively address the past to move from a divided history to a shared future?

How do people rebuild coexistence after violence?

This Handbook presents a range of tools that can be, and have been, employed in the design and implementation of reconciliation processes. Most of them draw on the experience of people grappling with the problems of past violence and injustice.

There is no ‘right answer’ to the challenge of reconciliation, and so the Handbook prescribes no single approach. Instead, it presents the options and methods, with their strengths and weaknesses evaluated, so that practitioners and policymakers can adopt or adapt them, as best suits each specific context.



Publication date
01 January 2003
David Bloomfield, Teresa Barnes, Luc Huyse
Number of pages
91-89098-91-9 (Print)


Additional materials

Policy Summary in English

Reconciliación luego de Conflictos Violentos. Resumen de Políticas

Policy Summary in Myanmar

Policy Summary in Sinhala

Policy Summary in Tamil


Foreword – Desmond Tutu

Preface – Karen Fogg


Part 1. Reconciliation: The Context

1. Reconciliation: An Introduction

2. The Process of Reconciliation

3. The Context of Reconciliation

Part 2. Reconciliation: The People

4. Victims

5. Offenders

Part 3. Reconciliation: The Instruments

6. Healing

7. Justice

8. Truth-Telling

9. Reparation

Part 4. The International Community

10. The International Community

11. Conclusion


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Reconciliation after Violent Conflict

A Handbook
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