The Global State of Democracy is a report that aims to provide policymakers with an evidence-based analysis of the state of global democracy, supported by the Global State of Democracy Indices (GSoD Indices), in order to inform policy interventions and identify problem-solving approaches to trends affecting the quality of democracy around the world.

This document revises and updates the conceptual and measurement framework that guided the construction of Version 7 of the GSoD Indices, which depicts democratic trends at the country, regional and global levels across a broad range of different attributes of democracy in the period 1975–2022.

The data underlying the GSoD Indices is based on a total of 157 indicators developed by various scholars and organizations using different approaches, including expert surveys, standards-based coding by research groups and analysts, observational data and composite measures.


Publication date
30 December 2023
Claudiu D. Tufis, Alexander Hudson
Number of pages
978-91-7671-729-5 (PDF)


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Conceptual structure

1. Data sources

2. Coverage

3. Indicators

4. Assessing the unidimensionality of the indices

5. Aggregating the indicators into indices

6. Scaling

7. Confidence intervals

8. Validity checks



Annex A. Sources

Annex B. Countries, regions and subregions included in International IDEA’s GSoD Indices

Annex C. Regional organizations included in the data set

Annex D. Attributes, subattributes and indicators

Annex E. Dimensionality tests, factor loadings and Cronbach’s alpha values

Annex F. Item–item correlations

Annex G. Comparisons with extant measure

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The Global State of Democracy Indices: Technical Procedures Guide, Version 7 (2023)

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