Sudan has experienced four transitional periods in its post-independence history, all of which have failed to achieve the desired change. The fifth transition, which began in 2019, was hindered by the October 2021 coup d’état and later by the April 2023 armed conflict, resulting in yet another failed transition. This book delves into an investigation of these failed transitions and the challenges they faced. It provides an in-depth analysis of the reasons behind their failures, incorporating various models and theories to explore the nature of Sudan’s latest transition. By highlighting the unique aspects of the Sudanese experience, this approach aims to enrich academic research and contribute value to the literature on transitology.

The book claims that the failure to fulfil all the conditions necessary for a proper transition to democracy serves as a prelude to the failure of democratic rule. This is attributed to the crisis of governance in Sudan that is rooted in the structure of power, characterized by the ruling political class's incapability to lead the country effectively. The author argues that a successful transition in Sudan must be unhindered by ‘political compromises’ but based on a ‘historical settlement’ that brings together all the components of the political scene and opens the door wide open for the society at large to forge ahead in parallel with the mainstream of historical evolution.


Publication date
04 August 2023
Atta H. el-Battahani
Number of pages
978-91-7671-659-5 (PDF)


Original publisher’s note
Introduction to the first edition

1. The transitional period: Concept and theoretical framework

2. Procedural and substantive requirements for transition

3. Failure of transitions and democratic rule

4. The Inghaz legacy and the fifth transition

5. The fifth transitional period, 2019–2022

6. Conclusions

Annex 1. Diversity elements in Sudan
Annex 2. National income distribution in the early 1970s and late 1990s
Annex 3. Budgets and financial information
Annex 4. The parliament: The 2018 budget is dedicated to security and defence: Don’t dream of a flowery world
Annex 5. Constitutional Declaration provisions related to peace and transition to democracy


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The Dilemma of Political Transition in Sudan

An Analytical Approach
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