International IDEA’s Annual Review of Constitution-Building provides a retrospective account of constitutional transitions around the world, the issues that drive them, and their implications for national and international politics.

This seventh edition covers events in 2019. Because this year marks the end of a decade, the first chapter summarizes a series of discussions International IDEA held with international experts and scholars throughout the year on the evolution of constitution-building over the past 10 years. The edition also includes chapters on challenges with sustaining constitutional pacts in Guinea and Zimbabwe; public participation in constitutional reform processes in The Gambia and Mongolia; constitutional change and subnational governance arrangements in Tobago and the Autonomous Region of Bangsamoro; the complexities of federal systems and negotiations on federal state structures in Myanmar and South Sudan; and the drawing (and redrawing) of the federal map in South Sudan and India.

Writing at the mid-way point between the instant reactions of the blogosphere and academic analyses that follow several years later, the authors provide accounts of ongoing political transitions, the major constitutional issues they give rise to, and the implications of these processes for democracy, the rule of law and peace.


Publication date
31 December 2020
Adem Abebe, Sumit Bisarya, W. Elliot Bulmer, Erin C. Houlihan and Thibaut Noel
Number of pages
978-91-7671-355-6 (PDF)


Kevin Casas-Zamora

Erin C. Houlihan

1. A decade of constitution-building processes: Some reflections from international experts
Sumit Bisarya (editor)

2. The vulnerability of constitutional pacts: inclusive majoritarianism as protection against democratic backsliding
Adem Abebe

3. The how and why of participatory constitution-building: (re)examining expectations, processes and outcomes in The Gambia and Mongolia

Erin C. Houlihan

4. Replicate, reform or reject? Autonomous institutions and constitutional innovation in Tobago and Bangsamoro
W. Elliot Bulmer

5. Contested state structures: comparing negotiations about federal system design in Myanmar and South Sudan
Thibaut Noel

6. Making and re-making internal boundaries: debates on the ‘federal map’ in South Sudan and India—Jammu and Kashmir
Sumit Bisarya

About the authors

About International IDEA

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Annual Review of Constitution-Building: 2019

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