This Report delves into the financial aspect of online campaigning, depicting a landscape characterized by lax regulation, the proliferation of malicious actors, and limited oversight capabilities to keep pace with rapid changes. In this sense, the challenges facing Albania are no different from those being tackled across much of the democratic world.

While this Report focuses on untracked financing in Albania, it acknowledges the broader concerns, such as opaque communication practices and the unchecked exploitation of personal data for voter targeting. To date, there has been minimal in-depth research into the specific problems that Albania should address and the effectiveness of existing legislation.

This Report seeks to fill this gap by examining current regulatory practices in Albania, analysing activities during the 2021 parliamentary election and 2023 local government election. It also explores broader challenges encountered when regulating online campaign expenditure and examines international developments and regulatory trends in other countries in this realm. The paper concludes with recommendations for reforming Albania's political finance regulations.


Publication date
13 May 2024
Samuel Power
Number of pages
978-91-7671-744-8 (PDF)




1. Online campaign spending in Albania: A case study of the 2021 parliamentary general election

2. Thinking comparatively: Experiences and practices from other countries

3. Considerations for strengthening the online campaign finance regime in Albania

4. Conclusion


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Keeping up with Political Finance in the Digital Age in Albania

Prospects for Greater Regulation and Transparency
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