Democratic backsliding

GSoD Chapter 3

Image from International IDEA's first edition of the Global State of Democracy, Chapter 3 on Threats from within: democracy’s resilience to backsliding.


Disclaimer: Views expressed in this commentary are those of the staff member. This commentary is independent of specific national or political interests. Views expressed do not necessarily represent the institutional position of International IDEA, its Board of Advisers or its Council of Member States.


Whilst dictatorships and monist systems are disappearing, they are not necessarily being replaced by consolidated democracies. In their stead, we are seeing the creation of quasi-democratic systems which are noted for having a façade of democracy and political pluralism, and which are prone to being manipulated by the politico-criminal underground world.

Read the full article in Albanian on

About the Author

FORMER Senior Programme Officer
Armend Bekaj
Armend Bekaj was the Senior Programme Officer for the Democracy Assessment and Political Analysis Unit. He was part of the writing team for International IDEA’s signature publication, "The Global State of Democracy". In addition, his portfolio included examining the impact of migration waves on democratic institutions and processes.