This Code of Conduct assumes that governments, parties, organizations and individuals are each committed to multiparty pluralism and the democratic process.

International IDEA reviewed several Codes of Conduct produced recently in various parts of the world, which are relevant and valuable to all democracies. Each of the Codes reviewed was developed at a time when the democratic process was facing significant challenges, and was implemented with the intention of minimizing conflict, eradicating intimidation, and encouraging a climate of open, free and fair competition during the election period.

This Code of Conduct was drafted in the first half of 1998. The process involved the retrieval, collation, analysis and synthesis of all the different codes and materials on this topic. This enabled the formulation and drafting of a universal set of minimum standards. Following distribution of the draft code, a lengthy and detailed process of consultation with election management bodies was undertaken over a 12-month period.


Publication date
01 January 1999
Number of pages
91-89098-27-7 (Print)



A voluntary ‘Code of Conduct’

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Negotiating the Code of Conduct

Code of Conduct


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Code of Conduct for Political Parties: Campaigning in Democratic Elections

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