This Case Study is part of The Global State of Democracy 2023 Report

At the end of 2022, Gender Equality scores in the Global State of Democracy (GSoD) dataset were decidedly mid-range. Although mid-range global scores have long been the norm (since 1983), it is important to note that there has been slow improvement over time.

It is important to address data gaps regarding women’s empowerment and gender equality. These include data on women’s participation in household decision making and access to household income, as well as on emerging or long-standing issues such as vulnerabilities resulting from climate change, status and well-being of women and girls facing intersectional inequalities, and the role of technology in combating or entrenching institutional gender bias.


Publication date
02 November 2023
Atsuko Hirakawa and Rumbidzai Kandawasvika-Nhundu
Number of pages
978-91-7671-690-8 (PDF)


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Gains for women’s rights: Evidence from 2023

Setbacks reversing decades of gains

Way forward for tackling systemic challenges



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Case study: Gender Equality

Global State of Democracy 2023 Report
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