Gender Quotas Database

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South America

Ecuador has a Unicameral parliament with legislated quotas for the single/lower house and at the sub-national level. 59 of 137 (43%) seats in the Asamblea Nacional / National Assembly are held by women.

At a glance

Structure of parliament Unicameral

Are there legislated quotas

For the Single / Lower house? Yes
For the Upper house? No
For the Sub-national level? Yes

Are there voluntary quotas?

Adopted by political parties? No
Is there additional information? Yes

Single / Lower House

Asamblea Nacional / National Assembly

Quota at the Sub-National Level

Voluntary Political Party Quotas*

* Only political parties represented in parliament are included. When a country has legislated quotas in place, only political parties that have voluntary quotas that exceed the percentage/number of the national quota legislation are presented in this table.

Additional information

According to the 2009/2012 Electoral Law, the candidates of the political parties for the elections for the National Assembly, the Andean Parliament, the Latin-American parliament, and the regional and municipal councils will be chosen through internal primary elections in which the principles of parity and alternation will be applied (Article 160). Furthermore, political parties should respect these principles in internal elections for the nomination of candidates and in their internal structures and political functions (Articles 94 and 343).

In 1997 a 20 per cent quota was introduced for the Chamber of Deputies, and the percentage was set to increase by 5 per cent for each election cycle until parity was reached (Cañete 2008). In the 2002 national elections, some parties did not comply with the new electoral law, mostly regarding the rank-order rules. The Supreme Electoral Tribunal did not use its mandate to reject the registration of these lists (Cañete 2008). This system was overturned by the new Constitution and the laws now in effect.


Legal Sources:

Other Sources:

Additional reading

  • See the latest updates on Ecuador on iKNOW Politics
  • Gender Equality Observatory for Latin America and the Caribbean: Ecuador (Official Website)
  • Peralta Zambrano, A (2005): "Ley de cuotas y participación política de las mujeres en el Ecuador" Revista IIDH Vol.42. Pp: 377-405.
  • Htun, Mala N. 2002. ‘Mujeres y poder político en Latinoamérica,’ in International IDEA, Mujeres en el Parlamento. Más allá de los números, Stockholm: International IDEA, pp. 19-44.
  • Htun, Mala N. and Jones, M. P. 2002. ‘Engendering the Right to Participate in Decision-Making: Electoral Quotas and Women's Leadership in Latin America.’ Nikki Craske and Maxine Molyneux(ed.) Gender and the Politics of Rights and Democracy in Latin America. New York: Palgrave. pp. 32-56.
  • Pacari, N. 2002. ‘La Participación Política de la Mujer Indígena en El Congreso Ecuatoriano’, in M. Méndez-Montalvo and J. Ballington (eds) Mujeres en el Parlamento – Más alla de los números, Stockholm: International IDEA, pp. 45–62.
  • Peschard, J. 2002. ‘El sistema de cuotas en América Latina. Panorama general,’ in International IDEA. Mujeres en elParlamento. Más allá de los números, Stockholm: International IDEA, pp. 173-186.
  • Jimenez Polanco, J. 2001. ‘La représentation politique des femmes en Amérique Latine: une analyse comparée’ (Women's political representation in Latin America: a comparative analysis). Bérengère Marques-Pereira and Patricio Nolasco (ed.) La représentation politique des femmes en Amérique Latine(Women's political representation in Latin America). Brussels: L'Harmattan. pp. 27-81.
  • Women's Leadership Conference of the Americas. 2001. Women and Power in the Americas: A Report Card. Washington: Women's Leadership Conference of the Americas.
  • Htun, Mala N. 1998. Women's Political Participation, Representation and Leadership in Latin America. Issue Brief, Women's Leadership Conference of the Americas.
  • León, M. 1998. ‘Ecuador: La incidencia de la agenda internacional en la participación femenina y en las políticas para la equidad de género en el Ecuador.’ Silvia Vega Ugalde (ed.). Acceso de las mujeres a la toma de decisiones en los países andinos. Quito: Coalición Política de Mujeres Andinas. pp. 109-145
  • Gutierrez, E. 1997. ‘Women-Latam: Andean Women Flex Their Political Muscle.’ Interpress Service, September 23.
  • Inter-Parliamentary Union. 1997a. Men and Women in Politics: Democracy Still in the Making, A World Comparative Study. Geneva: Inter-Parliamentary Union.
  • Merizalde, B & Soledad, M. 1997. La participación de la mujer en la política ecuatoriana(The participation of women in Ecuadoran politics). Quito: Editorial Universitaria.
  • Ecuador Parliament website,

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