Gender Quotas Database

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Eastern Asia

Taiwan has a Unicameral parliament with legislated quotas for the single/lower house and at the sub-national level. 47 of 113 (42%) seats in the Legislative Yuan are held by women.

At a glance

Structure of parliament Unicameral

Are there legislated quotas

For the Single / Lower house? Yes
For the Upper house? No
For the Sub-national level? Yes

Are there voluntary quotas?

Adopted by political parties? No
Is there additional information? Yes

Single / Lower House

Legislative Yuan

Quota at the Sub-National Level

Voluntary Political Party Quotas*

* Only political parties represented in parliament are included. When a country has legislated quotas in place, only political parties that have voluntary quotas that exceed the percentage/number of the national quota legislation are presented in this table.

Additional information

Until 1992 the National Assembly, a large elected body with delegates from the mainland and the Taiwan constituencies, was the main legislative organ responsible for amending the constitution and electing the president. However, the National Assembly became largely defunct because of its inability to renew its composition due to the term extension of mainland delegates. In 1992, the president became directly elected by the people, and in 2000 the National Assembly was stripped of most powers, transferring legislative powers to the Legislative Yuan. In 2005, the National Assembly was abolished completely and amendments to the constitution are now ultimately decided by popular ballot. During its existence, the National Assembly had several reserved seats for delegates from women's organizations. Under the single non-transferable vote system, until the elections in 2005, there were multimember constituencies; in those with more than four members, one was reserved for women candidates who obtained the highest number of votes. The aggregate number of seats this system reserved for women equalled 10 per cent (Matland 2006: 288–89).

In light of a constitutional amendment in the early 1990s, it was proposed that 25 per cent of all legislative seats be reserved for women. This bill did not pass through parliament.

In 2005, a gender quota of 50% was stipulated for the number of women elected in proportion to the votes won by a political party in the Legislative Yuan election.


Legal Sources:

  • Constitution of Taiwan - Link
  • Public officials Election And Recall Act - Link
  • Political Party Law - Link
  • Local Government Act - Link

Other Sources:

  • Parliament of Taiwan - Link
  • Central Electoral Commission - Link
  • Legal regulation related to women’s rights - Link
  • Matland, R. E., ‘Electoral Quotas: Frequency and Effectiveness’, in D. Dahlerup (ed.), Women, Quotas and Politics (New York: Routledge, 2006)

Additional reading

  • Huang, Chang-Ling. 2002. ‘Democracy and the Politics of Difference: Gender Quota in Taiwan.’ Paper presented at The Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association. Boston, MA, August 29-September 1.
  • Clark, Janet and Cal Clark. 2000. ‘The Reserved Seats System in Taiwan.’ in Rose J. Lee and Cal Clark (eds.). Democracy & the Status of Women in East Asia. Boulder: Lynne Rienner. pp. 61-76.
  • Lee, Rose J. 2000. ‘Electoral Reform and Women's Empowerment: Taiwan and South Korea.’ Rose J. Lee and Cal Clark (eds.). Democracy & the Status of Women in East Asia. Boulder: Lynne Rienner. Pp 47-59.
  • Chou, Bih-er and Janet Clark. 1994. ‘Electoral Systems and Women's Representation in Taiwan: The Impact of the Reserved Seat System.’ Wilma Rule and Joseph F. Zimmerman (eds.)   Electoral Systems in Comparative Perspective: The Impact on Women and Minorities. Westport: Greenwood Press. pp. 161-170.
  • Chou, Bih-er, Cal Clark, and Janet Clark. 1990. Women in Taiwan Politics: Overcoming Barriers to Women's Participation in a Modernizing Society. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.
  • Taiwan Government Information Office,

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