Gender Quotas Database

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Western Europe

Netherlands has a Bicameral parliament with the use of voluntary party quotas. 58 of 150 (39%) seats in the Tweede Kamer der Staten-Generaal / House of Representatives are held by women.

At a glance

Structure of parliament Bicameral

Are there legislated quotas

For the Single / Lower house? No
For the Upper house? No
For the Sub-national level? No

Are there voluntary quotas?

Adopted by political parties? Yes
Is there additional information? Yes

Single / Lower House

Tweede Kamer der Staten-Generaal / House of Representatives

Upper House

Eerste Kamer der Staten-Generaal / Senate

Voluntary Political Party Quotas*

* Only political parties represented in parliament are included. When a country has legislated quotas in place, only political parties that have voluntary quotas that exceed the percentage/number of the national quota legislation are presented in this table.

Additional information

In addition to formal regulations on gender quotas, some parties have initiated other types of measures, such as agreements between various intra-party structures or territorial organizations on the number of women candidates to be selected for nomination. In 2004, the Christian Union adopted a resolution which called national and sub-national party boards and committees to ensure that at least one in every three candidates are women (Stockholm University & International IDEA 2009)

"The 2021 elections returned an even more fragmented House of Representatives than the previous legislature: 17 parties, up from 13 in the previous legislature, entered the 150-member House of Representatives. Only four parties took more than 15 seats." (IPU)


Legal Sources:

  • Constitution of the Netherlands - Link
  • Electoral Law - Link
  • Political Parties Financial Act - Link

Other Sources:

Additional reading

  • See the latest updates on The Netherlands on iKNOW Politics
  • Oldersma, J. 2005. ‘High tides in a low country: gendering political
    representation in the Netherlands’, in Lovenduski, J. et al (eds) State Feminism and Political Representation, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 153-173.
  • Bussemaker, J., & Voet, R. (eds.). 1998. Gender, Participation and Citizenship in the Netherlands. Brookfield: Ashgate.
  • Leijenaar, M. 1998. ‘Political Empowerment of Women in the Netherlands.’ Bussemaker, J. & Voet, R. (eds.). Gender, Participation and Citizenship in the Netherlands. Brookfield: Ashgate. pp. 91-107.
  • Bacchi, C. L. 1996. Politics of Affirmative Actions. Women, Equality and Category Politics. London: Sage.
  • Netherland Parliament website,

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