Gender Quotas Database
Single / Lower House
Tweede Kamer der Staten-Generaal / House of Representatives
|Percentage of women||41%|
|Electoral system||List PR|
|Quota type||No legislated|
|Election details||IDEA Voter Turnout - IPU Parline|
Eerste Kamer der Staten-Generaal / Senate
|Percentage of women||32%|
|Electoral system||Indirectly Elected|
|Election details||IPU Parline|
|Quota type:||Electoral law|
Voluntary Political Party Quotas*
|Party||Official Name||Details, Quota provisions|
|Green Left||GroenLinks (GL)||
GL has quotas for women (percentage not confirmed).
|Labour Party||Partij van de Arbeid (PvdA)||
National lists are in principle alternated between men and women, although other concerns such as age and ethnicity are also considered. Congress has the last say on the composition of lists (1987).
* Only political parties represented in parliament are included. When a country has legislated quotas in place, only political parties that have voluntary quotas that exceed the percentage/number of the national quota legislation are presented in this table.
In addition to formal regulations on gender quotas, some parties have initiated other types of measures, such as agreements between various intra-party structures or territorial organizations on the number of women candidates to be selected for nomination. In 2004, the Christian Union adopted a resolution which called national and sub-national party boards and committees to ensure that at least one in every three candidates are women (Stockholm University & International IDEA 2009)
"The 2021 elections returned an even more fragmented House of Representatives than the previous legislature: 17 parties, up from 13 in the previous legislature, entered the 150-member House of Representatives. Only four parties took more than 15 seats." (IPU)
- Constitution of The Netherlands (rev. 2018) (English version)
- Electoral Act (rev. 2015) (English version)
- Electoral Gender Quotas and Their Implementation in Europe, Stockholm University and International IDEA, 2009.
- Inter-Parliamentary Union [IPU] Parline - Netherlands Country Profile
- See the latest updates on The Netherlands on iKNOW Politics
Oldersma, J. 2005. ‘High tides in a low country: gendering political
representation in the Netherlands’, in Lovenduski, J. et al (eds) State Feminism and Political Representation, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 153-173.
- Bussemaker, J., & Voet, R. (eds.). 1998. Gender, Participation and Citizenship in the Netherlands. Brookfield: Ashgate.
- Leijenaar, M. 1998. ‘Political Empowerment of Women in the Netherlands.’ Bussemaker, J. & Voet, R. (eds.). Gender, Participation and Citizenship in the Netherlands. Brookfield: Ashgate. pp. 91-107.
- Bacchi, C. L. 1996. Politics of Affirmative Actions. Women, Equality and Category Politics. London: Sage.
- Netherland Parliament website, https://www.houseofrepresentatives.nl/
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