Direct Democracy Database
Legal provisions for mandatory referendums at national level
Legal provisions for optional referendums at national level
Legal provisions for citizens' initiatives at national level
Legal provisions for agenda initiatives at national level
Legal provisions for recall at national level
Legal provisions for direct democracy at the regional level
Legal provisions for direct democracy at the local level
Legal basis for direct democracy at the national level
Legal basis for administrative requirements at the national level
Who administers direct democracy mechanisms at the national level?
First referendum/initiative held
Has there been a national referendum since 1980?
Issues in relation to which referendums are mandatory at the national level
Issues in relation to which referendums are optional at the national level
Issues excluded from being the subject of referendums at the national level
Issues of sub-national referendums regulated at the national level
Who can initiate an optional referendum at the national level?
Who drafts the referendum question?
Who decides on the final form of the ballot text?
Quorum requirements for a referendum to be valid
Requirements for a referendum to pass
Are referendum results binding?
Issues that can be proposed by citizens using the initiative process at the national level
Issues excluded from being the subject of an initiative at the national level
Who may propose the registration of an initiative?
Materials to accompany an application for registration
Who determines the title of an initiative?
What disqualifies a proposed title of an initiative?
Who is responsible for checking the legality of initiatives?
At which stage legality check is conducted?
Who decides the final ballot text when the initiative is put to a vote?
When does voting take place once an initiative is qualified for ballot?
Which individuals/positions may be subject to the recall?
What are the grounds for recall?
What restrictions are there in relation to the time period in which an individual or position can be recalled?
When is the recall put to the vote?
When does the election to replace an individual who has been recalled take place?
Can an individual who is the subject of a recall stand on the ballot for his/her own replacement?
How many signatures are required to start the formal decision making stage of a direct democracy mechanism?
What is the deadline for collecting required number of signatures?
Restrictions in relation to the individuals who can sign the proposal
Where can proposals be signed?
What information must signatories provide when signing the proposal?
Restrictions in relation to signature collection
What forms of checks are undertaken to verify signatures?
Who checks the signatures?