Gender Quotas Database

See data for special areas Taiwan and Kosovo



Eastern Africa

Zimbabwe has a Bicameral parliament with the use of voluntary party quotas and legislated quotas for the single/lower house and upper house and at the sub-national level. 75 of 270 (28%) seats in the National Assembly are held by women.

At a glance

Structure of parliament Bicameral

Are there legislated quotas

For the Single / Lower house? Yes
For the Upper house? Yes
For the Sub-national level? Yes

Are there voluntary quotas?

Adopted by political parties? Yes
Is there additional information? Yes

Single / Lower House

National Assembly

Upper House


Quota at the Sub-National Level

Voluntary Political Party Quotas*

* Only political parties represented in parliament are included. When a country has legislated quotas in place, only political parties that have voluntary quotas that exceed the percentage/number of the national quota legislation are presented in this table.

Additional information

The system of reserved seats for women in the National Assembly, and of gender parity in candidate lists for Senate and provincial elections, promises to be a breakthrough for increasing the overall number of women in politics in Zimbabwe. Nevertheless, the text of the 2013 Constitution does not provide for any sanction with regard to parties found to be in non-compliance with the section of the Constitution requiring gender parity in candidate lists for the Senate and provincial councils. It remains to be seen if the Election Commission of Zimbabwe will disqualify such lists from the contest. As defined in the new amendmenet of the Constitution in 2023, the reserved seats for the National Assembly will apply to the four subsequent parliaments elected after 2013, so that it expires in 2033.

"The majority of the participants (68%) stated that processes for elections in Zimbabwe are not representative, inclusive or democratic and this also affects selection of PR quota system candidates. The research found that internal and external factors determine level of participation. Mostly, other MPs believe that while opportunities exist in the parties for women's participation, women sometimes generally shy away due to challenges such as lack of resources and political violence"(




  • Constitution of Zimbabwe (amended up to 2023) - Link 
  • Electoral Law (amended through 2023) - Link
  • Political Parties Law - Link
  • Parliament Of Zimbabwe - Link


  • Zimbabwe Gender Commission - Link
  • Hamandishe, A. 2018. 'Rethinking women's political participation in Zimbabwe's elections', African Portal, Published 27 July 2018, Accessed 26 September 2018. 
  • Women's Academy for Leadership and Political Excellence (WALPE) / the Southern African Parliamentary Support Trust (SAPST) “The efficacy of the Parliamentary women's proportional representation quota system”. Found at (Accessed 2021-03-25)
  • Darlington Tshuma (2018) "Looking Beyond 2023 What Next after Zimbabwe’s Parliamentary Quota System?".  Found at (Accessed 2021-03-25)

Additional reading

  • See the latest updates on Zimbabwe on iKNOW Politics
  • Arendt, C. (2018). From Critical Mass to Critical Leaders: Unpacking the Political Conditions behind Gender Quotas in Africa. Politics & Gender, 14(3), 295-322. doi:10.1017/S1743923X17000502
  • Bauer, G. (2016) “A lot of head wraps”: African contributions to the third wave of electoral gender quotas, Politics, Groups, and Identities, 4:2, 196-213, DOI:10.1080/21565503.2015.1112293
  • Dimitrova-Grajzl, V. & Obasanjo, I. 2019, "Do parliamentary gender quotas decrease gender inequality? The case of African countries", Constitutional political economy, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 149-176.
  • Dziva, C. (2018), "The 2013 Constitutional Reform and the Protection of Women's Rights in Zimbabwe", Eastern Africa social science research review, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 21-35.

Explore more resources: Africa | Global

Know about useful additional reading for Zimbabwe? Tell us!

Submit feedback

Submit questions or comments about the Data or Tool

How did you find out about this? What do you like about it? What did you expect but did not find in using the Data or Tool?

To see how we handle your personal data, please read our Privacy Policy.

Close tooltip