Ethiopia

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Question Value
1. Is there a ban on donations from foreign interests to political parties?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    Art 52 (1) "Every political party is prohibited to accept donation or grant from the following persons or bodies: a) foreign nationals; b) foreign government or foreign political party;"

     

  • Source

    The Revised Political Parties Registration No. 573/2008, 24 September 2008

2. Is there a ban on donations from foreign interests to candidates?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
3. Is there a ban on corporate donations to political parties?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    "The income source of a political party may be (...) donations or grants by Ethiopian nationals and companies in accordance with the limit to be set by the Board on basis of its study;"

    (Article 51(1)b, the Revised Political Parties Registration No. 573/2008, 24 September 2008).

  • Source
4. Is there a ban on corporate donations to candidates?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
5. Is there a ban on donations from Trade Unions to political parties?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
6. Is there a ban on donations from Trade Unions to candidates?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
7. Is there a ban on anonymous donations to political parties?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    Art 52 (1) "Every political party is prohibited to accept donation or grant from the following persons or bodies (...) donation or grant having unknown source;"

     

  • Source

    The Revised Political Parties Registration No. 573/2008, 24 September 2008

8. Is there a ban on anonymous donations to candidates?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
9. Is there a ban on donations from corporations with government contracts to political parties?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
10. Is there a ban on donations from corporations with government contracts to candidates?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
11. Is there a ban on donations from corporations with partial government ownership to political parties?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    Art 52 (1) "Every political party is prohibited to accept donation or grant from the following persons or bodies (...)  government organization."

     

  • Source

    The Revised Political Parties Registration No. 573/2008, 24 September 2008

12. Is there a ban on donations from corporations with partial government ownership to candidates?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
13. Is there a ban on the use of state resources in favour or against a political party or candidate?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    Art 14 (1)"Any political shall not (...) use Federal, Regional, Municipal or other public resources for campaign purposes in any manner other than those allowed by election laws."

     

  • Source

    Electoral Code of Conduct for Political Parties, Proclamation n° 662/2009, 28 August 2009

14. Is there a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party during a non-election specific period?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
15. If there is a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party during a non-election specific period, what is the limit?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment
  • Source
16. Is there a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party during an election?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
17. If there is a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party during an election, what is the limit?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment
  • Source
18. Is there a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a candidate?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
19. If there is a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a candidate, what is the limit?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment
  • Source
20. Is there a limit on the amount a candidate can contribute to their own election campaign?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
21. Is there a limit on in-kind donations to political parties?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
22. Is there a limit on in-kind donations to candidates?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
23. Is there a ban on political parties engaging in commercial activities?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    Art 51(3) "Notwithstanding the provision of Article 7 (2) of this Proclamation, a political party which has attained legal personality may not directly or indirectly engage in commercial and industrial activities."

  • Source

    The Revised Political Parties Registration No. 573/2008, 24 September 2008

24. Is there a ban on political parties taking loans in relation to election campaigns?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
25. Is there a ban on candidates taking loans in relation to election campaigns?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
26. Is there a ban on donors to political parties/candidates participating in public tender/procurement processes?
  • CodeNo data
  • Comment
  • Source
27. Are there provisions requiring donations to go through the banking system?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source

Question Value
28. Are there provisions for direct public funding to political parties?
  • CodeYes, both regularly provided funding and in relation to campaigns
  • Comment

    100. Government Funding: Amount and Eligibility Criteria

    1. The government shall grant annual financial support for political parties to enable them conduct legal operations and meet their obligations, based on the vote they win at Federal and State Council elections, the support and donations they receive from members and supporters, the number of female and disabled candidates they nominate as candidates, and other relevant criteria.

    2. The amount of financial support that a political party receives, in accordance with sub- article (1) above, shall be determined by a directive to be issued by the Board based on the following criteria:

      1. the number of votes it wins at Federal and State Council elections;

      2. the support and donations it receives from members and supporters;

      3. the number of female candidates it nominates;

      4. the number of female members of the party and number of female at leadership positions; and

      5. the number of disabled candidates that it nominates.

    3. Notwithstanding the provisions of sub-article 3(a) of this Article, a party shall not receive government funding if it receives less than 0.5% of the total number of votes for the House of Peoples Representatives or less than one percent (1%) of the total votes for the State Council that it contested for. However, this minimum percentage requirement shall not be applicable to parties representing minority nations or nationalities.

    4. The amount of funding to be granted based on the criteria listed under sub-article (2) above shall be applicable to the general election to be conducted following the adoption of this Proclamation.

    5. In addition to the financial support stated above, the government may provide support to political parties in kind or through services.

  • Source

    The Ethiopian Electoral and Political Parties Proclamation No…/2019

29. What are the eligibility criteria for political parties to receive public funding?
  • CodeShare of votes in previous election | Number of candidates
  • Comment
    • 100. Government Funding: Amount and Eligibility Criteria

      1. The government shall grant annual financial support for political parties to enable them conduct legal operations and meet their obligations, based on the vote they win at Federal and State Council elections, the support and donations they receive from members and supporters, the number of female and disabled candidates they nominate as candidates, and other relevant criteria.

      2. The amount of financial support that a political party receives, in accordance with sub- article (1) above, shall be determined by a directive to be issued by the Board based on the following criteria:

        1. the number of votes it wins at Federal and State Council elections;

        2. the support and donations it receives from members and supporters;

        3. the number of female candidates it nominates;

        4. the number of female members of the party and number of female at leadership positions; and

        5. the number of disabled candidates that it nominates.

      3. Notwithstanding the provisions of sub-article 3(a) of this Article, a party shall not receive government funding if it receives less than 0.5% of the total number of votes for the House of Peoples Representatives or less than one percent (1%) of the total votes for the State Council that it contested for. However, this minimum percentage requirement shall not be applicable to parties representing minority nations or nationalities.

      4. The amount of funding to be granted based on the criteria listed under sub-article (2) above shall be applicable to the general election to be conducted following the adoption of this Proclamation.

      5. In addition to the financial support stated above, the government may provide support to political parties in kind or through services.

  • Source

    The Ethiopian Electoral and Political Parties Proclamation No…/2019

30. What is the allocation calculation for political parties to receive public funding?
  • CodeProportional to votes received | Proportional to candidates fielded
  • Comment

    And additional criteria: See below

     

    "Art 100.  Government Funding: Amount and Eligibility Criteria - The amount of financial support that a political party receives, in accordance with subarticle

    (1) above, shall be determined by a directive to be issued by the Board based on the following criteria: a. the number of votes it wins at Federal and State Council elections; b. the support and donations it receives from members and supporters; c. the number of female candidates it nominates;  d. the number of female members of the party and number of female at leadership positions; and e. the number of disabled candidates that it nominates. 3. Notwithstanding the provisions of sub-article 3(a) of this Article, a party shall not receive government funding if it receives less than 0.5% of the total number of votes for the House of Peoples Representatives or less than one percent (1%) of the total votes for the State Council that it contested for.  However, this minimum percentage requirement shall not be applicable to parties representing minority nations or nationalities. 4. The amount of funding to be granted based on the criteria listed under sub-article (2) above shall be applicable to the general election to be conducted following the adoption of this Proclamation.   5. In addition to the financial support stated above, the government may provide support to political parties in kind or through services."

  • Source

    The Ethiopian Electoral and Political Parties Proclamation No…/2019

31. What are the provisions on 'ear marking' direct public funding to political parties (how it should be used)?
  • CodeOngoing party activities | Research and policy initiatives
  • Comment

    Art 46 (1 and 2)"A Political party shall utilize the support granted to it only for the intended purpose. The day to day activity of a political party includes the following:
    a) the customary day to day activity of political party; b) developing political consciousness of the public; c) acquainting the public with the aims of the party;
    d) agitation to enable citizens to have active participation in the political activity of the country; e) strengthening harmonious relationship between the public and the government institutions."

     

  • Source

    The Revised Political Parties Registration No. 573/2008, 24 September 2008

32. Are there provisions for free or subsidized access to media for political parties?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    44. Use of the Mass Media

    1. Political parties and their supporters are entitled to equal access to state-owned mass media including radio, TV and newspapers.

    2. Candidates shall be entitled to get access to free airtime on the state-owned media.

    3. The use of the mass media shall be carried out in accordance with the allocation directive to be developed by the Board in collaboration with the Ethiopian Broadcasting Authority

      and the participation of the contesting political parties.

    4. the code of conduct and implementation guidelines dealing with mass media use,

      journalists’ coverage of elections and related matters shall be determined by the directive to be issued by the Board.

    The Ethiopian Electoral and Political Parties Proclamation No…/2019

     

    Art 59 (1)"Political organizations and sections of the community that are in support of a candidate shall be entitled to equal access to state-owned mass media including radio, TV and newspapers."

    The Amended Electoral Law of Ethiopia, Proclamation No. 532/2007

     Art 42 (4) "The utilization of mass media shall be carried out in accordance with the election law."

    The Revised Political Parties Registration No. 573/2008, 24 September 2008

    Art 13 (1)"The financial support given to political parties by the government comprises of availing the parties the free use of government meeting halls, rendering mass media services according to the law and rendering of other similar services."

    Regulation Concerning the Procedure for Determining the Apportionment of Government Financial Support to Political Parties Regulation Number 5/2009, 20 July 2009).

    Art 13 (3)"The Board shall compute in terms of money, the share of air time given to a political party as part of the total financial support allocated to it according to this Regulation, and inform it thereof."

    Regulation Concerning the Procedure for Determining the Apportionment of Government Financial Support to Political Parties Regulation Number 5/2009, 20 July 2009

  • Source

    Regulation Concerning the Procedure for Determining the Apportionment of Government Financial Support to Political Parties Regulation Number 5/2009, 20 July 2009

    The Revised Political Parties Registration No. 573/2008, 24 September 2008

    The Amended Electoral Law of Ethiopia, Proclamation No. 532/2007

     

     

33. What criteria determine allocation for free or subsidized access to media for political parties?
  • CodeEqual | Other
  • Comment

    44. Use of the Mass Media

    1. Political parties and their supporters are entitled to equal access to state-owned mass media including radio, TV and newspapers.

    2. Candidates shall be entitled to get access to free airtime on the state-owned media.

    3. The use of the mass media shall be carried out in accordance with the allocation directive to be developed by the Board in collaboration with the Ethiopian Broadcasting Authority

      and the participation of the contesting political parties.

    4. the code of conduct and implementation guidelines dealing with mass media use,

      journalists’ coverage of elections and related matters shall be determined by the directive to be issued by the Board.

    The Ethiopian Electoral and Political Parties Proclamation No…/2019

  • Source
34. Are there provisions for free or subsidized access to media for candidates?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    45. Obligation of Government Organs

    To ensure the success of election contests government organs and officials at all levels are obligated to prepare the ground to provide both for candidates and their supporters, equal access to such facilities as radio and television stations, meeting halls and newspapers under their respective managerial authority. The Board shall issue a directive to determine the particulars.

  • Source

    The Ethiopian Electoral and Political Parties Proclamation No…/2019

35. Are there provisions for any other form of indirect public funding?
  • CodeTax relief | Space for campaign materials | Premises for campaign meetings
  • Comment

    77. Exemption from Income Tax

    1. Any political party shall not be liable to pay any kind of income tax on income collected from its members and supporters.

    2. Political party does not have the obligation to collect and transfer to the government income tax payable in accordance with the law in respect to its employees’ salaries.

     

    45. Obligation of Government Organs

    To ensure the success of election contests government organs and officials at all levels are obligated to prepare the ground to provide both for candidates and their supporters, equal access to such facilities as radio and television stations, meeting halls and newspapers under their respective managerial authority. The Board shall issue a directive to determine the particulars.

  • Source

    The Ethiopian Electoral and Political Parties Proclamation No…/2019

36. Is the provision of direct public funding to political parties tied to gender equality among candidates?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    Chapter 7, Article 100. Government Funding: Amount and Eligibility Criteria

    1. The government shall grant annual financial support for political parties to enable them conduct legal operations and meet their obligations, based on the vote they win at Federal and State Council elections, the support and donations they receive from members and supporters, the number of female and disabled candidates they nominate as candidates, and other relevant criteria.

    2. The amount of financial support that a political party receives, in accordance with sub- article (1) above, shall be determined by a directive to be issued by the Board based on the following criteria:

    a. the number of votes it wins at Federal and State Council elections;

    b. the support and donations it receives from members and supporters;

    c. the number of female candidates it nominates;

    d. the number of female members of the party and number of female at leadership positions; and

    e. the number of disabled candidates that it nominates.

  • Source

    The Ethiopian Electoral and Political Parties Proclamation No…/2019

37. Are there provisions for other financial advantages to encourage gender equality in political parties?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    No. But:

    74. By – Laws of Political Party

    "[...]Every political party when conducting election for leadership position shall ensure gender balance consideration."

  • Source

    The Ethiopian Electoral and Political Parties Proclamation No…/2019

Question Value
38. Is there a ban on vote buying?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    142. Bribery and Abuse of Force or Power

    Any political party, independent candidate, coalition, front, alliance or movement, as well as any political party leader, official, candidate, member, agent or representative who,

    1. offers or receives monetary or any kind of inducement or bribe.

    2. interferes or disturbs the voting process or counting of votes.

    3. coerces or offers monetary or any kind of inducement to persons to vote for or against a particular party or candidate, or to abstain from voting.

    4. controls polling stations by force or tries to get votes illegally.

    5. Abuses power by offering a reward, threatening a penalty or by any other means.

    6. coerces or offers monetary or any other kind of inducement to person to become a candidate or not to became a candidate, to withdraw or not to withdraw from an election

    7. As a public servant, uses official time, responsibilities and resources to promote candidates or discourage other candidates from promoting themselves through legal means;

    8. Uses public property for election campaigns shall be deemed to have committed an act of ethical violation.

  • Source

    The Ethiopian Electoral and Political Parties Proclamation No…/2019

39. Are there limits on the amount a political party can spend?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    105. Books of Account of Political Party

    1) Anypoliticalparty:

    1. shall deposit the support granted by government with a local bank using a

      separate account;

    2. may not expend outside the allowed expenditure and shall transact the account

      according to the law;

    3. shall keep the granted support in specific books of account by listing under every

      expenditure heading;

    4. shall submit audit report certified by auditor or financial expert, according to

      finance law, specifying the amount granted by the government in the budget year

      and the particulars for which the money has been expended.

    1. The auditor or financial expert shall forward his comment in the audit report as to whether the account audited by him has been expended outside the scope of the law and

      directive.

    2. The Federal Auditor General may at any time inspect political parties concerning the

      utilization of the government support funds.

  • Source

    The Ethiopian Electoral and Political Parties Proclamation No…/2019

40. If there are limits on the amount a political party can spend, what is the limit?
  • CodeNo data
  • Comment
  • Source
41. Are there limits on the amount a candidate can spend?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
42. If there are limits on the amount a candidate can spend, what is the limit?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment
  • Source
43. Are there limits on the amount that third parties can spend on election campaign activities?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
44. Are there limits on traditional media advertising spending in relation to election campaigns?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
45. Are there limits on online media advertising spending in relation to election campaigns?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
46. Do any other restrictions on online media advertisement (beyond limits) exist?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source

Question Value
47. Do political parties have to report regularly on their finances?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    82. Auditor of Political Party

    1. Every political party must keep properly its income, expenditure and assets and liabilities records and documents. The Board will issue a directive to determine the titles and details that these documents must contain.

    2. Unless stated otherwise in this Proclamation, every political party shall commission within three months of the end of the budget year, an external auditor whose professional competency approved by the mandated body, a financial expert who has taken a professional oath, or board appointed auditor to conduct a review of its finances and submit to the Board an audit report .

  • Source

    The Ethiopian Electoral and Political Parties Proclamation No…/2019

48. Do political parties have to report on their election campaign finances?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    Art 48 (3)"The political party shall submit its report to the Board within the period as determined by the Board if it relates to the report to be submitted as to the support granted for the purpose of election."

    The Revised Political Parties Registration No. 573/2008, 24 September 2008

    Art 24 (2)"Every political party that receives government financial support shall (...) submit an audited report to the Board concerning the government financial support within three months of the announcement of the result where the support is for the purpose of an election."

    Regulation Concerning the Procedure for Determining the Apportionment of Government Financial Support to Political Parties Regulation Number 5/2009, 20 July 2009

  • Source

    The Revised Political Parties Registration No. 573/2008, 24 September 2008

    Regulation Concerning the Procedure for Determining the Apportionment of Government Financial Support to Political Parties Regulation Number 5/2009, 20 July 2009

     

49. Do candidates have to report on their election campaign finances?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
50. Do third parties have to report on election campaign finances?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
51. Is information in reports from political parties and/or candidates to be made public?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    68. [...] The Board shall, upon receiving the audit report as per Article 105 of this Proclamation, publicize it; and where it deems necessary it may order inspection.

  • Source

    The Ethiopian Electoral and Political Parties Proclamation No…/2019

52. Must reports from political parties and/or candidates reveal the identity of donors?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    111. Record and Audit of Political Party

    Every political party shall have to keep appropriately at its head office an accurate and permanent record which includes the following matters:

    1. any in kind or monetary contribution or donation, and pledged contribution or donation;

    2. financial statement consisting the following:

      a. income statement indicating the different sources of income of the political party; b. the name of the person who made a contribution, donation or pledge of more than ETB 5000;
      c. the time by which the pledge contribution or donation is to be submitted; and d. the general financial activity of the political party.

    3. list of the fixed assets of the political party, and when and how the political party came to own these assets;

    4. The party’s detailed debt; and

    5. other relevant matters required by the Board.

  • Source

    The Ethiopian Electoral and Political Parties Proclamation No…/2019

53. Must reports from political parties and/or candidates include information on itemized income?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    111. Record and Audit of Political Party

    Every political party shall have to keep appropriately at its head office an accurate and permanent record which includes the following matters:

    1. any in kind or monetary contribution or donation, and pledged contribution or donation;

    2. financial statement consisting the following:

      a. income statement indicating the different sources of income of the political party; b. the name of the person who made a contribution, donation or pledge of more than ETB 5000;
      c. the time by which the pledge contribution or donation is to be submitted; and d. the general financial activity of the political party.

    3. list of the fixed assets of the political party, and when and how the political party came to own these assets;

    4. The party’s detailed debt; and

    5. other relevant matters required by the Board.

  • Source

    The Ethiopian Electoral and Political Parties Proclamation No…/2019

54. Must reports from political parties and/or candidates include information on itemized spending?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    Art 23 (3)"Where the financial support granted to a political party is money, according to article 48 subarticle (C) and (D) of the Registration Proclamation, it shall:enter its expenditures by listing them under every expenditure heading."

     

    111. Record and Audit of Political Party

    Every political party shall have to keep appropriately at its head office an accurate and permanent record which includes the following matters:

    1. any in kind or monetary contribution or donation, and pledged contribution or donation;

    2. financial statement consisting the following:

      a. income statement indicating the different sources of income of the political party; b. the name of the person who made a contribution, donation or pledge of more than ETB 5000;
      c. the time by which the pledge contribution or donation is to be submitted; and d. the general financial activity of the political party.

    3. list of the fixed assets of the political party, and when and how the political party came to own these assets;

    4. The party’s detailed debt; and

    5. other relevant matters required by the Board.

  • Source

    Regulation Concerning the Procedure for Determining the Apportionment of Government Financial Support to Political Parties Regulation Number 5/2009, 20 July 2009

     

    The Ethiopian Electoral and Political Parties Proclamation No…/2019

55. Which institution(s) receives financial reports from political parties and/or candidates?
  • CodeEMB
  • Comment

    113. Annual Audit Report

    1. Every political party shall undertake financial investigation annually by its auditor. Starting from 6 months of its registration, the political party shall submit its audit report to the Ethiopian National Electoral Board on the third month after the end of each budget year.

     

    Art 47 (3)"The support granted by the government to the political parties for the purpose of election shall be reported periodically to the Board in the audit report by the political parties after listing the expenditure of the grant in expenditure heading and certified by the auditor."

  • Source

    The Ethiopian Electoral and Political Parties Proclamation No…/2019

     

    The Revised Political Parties Registration No. 573/2008, 24 September 2008​

56. Which institution(s) is responsible for examining financial reports and/or investigating violations?
  • CodeYes, EMB | Yes, auditing agency | Yes, other
  • Comment

    82. Auditor of Political Party

    1. Every political party must keep properly its income, expenditure and assets and liabilities records and documents. The Board will issue a directive to determine the titles and details that these documents must contain.

    2. Unless stated otherwise in this Proclamation, every political party shall commission within three months of the end of the budget year, an external auditor whose professional competency approved by the mandated body, a financial expert who has taken a professional oath, or board appointed auditor to conduct a review of its finances and submit to the Board an audit report .

     

    105. Books of Account of Political Party

    [...] The Federal Auditor General may at any time inspect political parties concerning the utilization of the government support funds.

     

    116. Right of an Election Observers

    1. A representative of an organization who is issued with an election observation accreditation has the right to monitor the election process and request and obtain appropriate information. The observers have the right to look at elections material and observer the voting and counting process.

  • Source

    The Ethiopian Electoral and Political Parties Proclamation No…/2019

57. What power is granted to the institution(s) responsible for examining reports and/or investigating violations?
  • CodeCarry out investigation | Request additional information from potential violator
  • Comment

    83. Right of Auditor or Financial Advisor

    The auditor or finance expert examining a political party’s finances has the right to request for, and examine any document related to the assets and properties of the political party.

  • Source

    The Ethiopian Electoral and Political Parties Proclamation No…/2019

58. What sanctions are provided for political finance infractions?
  • CodeFines | Prison | Forfeiture | Loss of public funding | Deregistration of party | Suspension of political party
  • Comment

    98. Canceling Registration of Political Party upon the Decision of the Board

    1. The Board may cancel the registration of a political party for one of the following reasons:

      1. the political party has not notified the Board for appropriate reason and according to the provisions of this Proclamation when it changes its name, emblem, document, leadership, auditor, head office and other similar change and when it has not responded within two months the Board’s request to correct such actions.

      2. Where the political party failed to submit to the Board annual performance, audit, or other periodical reports required as per this Proclamation within the stipulated timeframe and having been granted a 30 days extension by the Board, failed to submit the same without sufficient reason;

    110. Unlawfully Acquired Asset and Property

    Where a political party is found to have received, in a manner otherwise than permitted by this Proclamation, money or any property in the form of donation, gratuity, inheritance or proceeds from commercial and industrial activity, or in any other way, it shall be fined three times more than the money it received. Additionally, it may be held liable under the appropriate law.

     

    Art 28 (1)"Any political party that utilizes the financial grant rendered to it by the government for the purposes and activities other than what it is intended for, or does not submit a report within the stipulated time or presents a false financial document, or is in default of his obligations in relation to the grant: A. the support granted to the party may be reduced or terminated; B. the party may be fined, suspended or dissolved according to the penal law; C. the party may be cancelled from  registration, or D. the leader or leaders of the political party may be fined or sentenced."

  • Source

    The Ethiopian Electoral and Political Parties Proclamation No…/2019

     

    Regulation Concerning the Procedure for Determining the Apportionment of Government Financial Support to Political Parties Regulation Number 5/2009, 20 July 200

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