Korea, Republic of

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Question Value
1. Is there a ban on donations from foreign interests to political parties?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
  • Source
2. Is there a ban on donations from foreign interests to candidates?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    The Political Fund Act defines foreign nationals, corporations and organizations both foreign and domestic as those who are ineligible to make political donations.

  • Source
3. Is there a ban on corporate donations to political parties?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    All donations from corporations are banned.

  • Source
4. Is there a ban on corporate donations to candidates?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    All corporate donations are banned.

  • Source
5. Is there a ban on donations from Trade Unions to political parties?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
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6. Is there a ban on donations from Trade Unions to candidates?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
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7. Is there a ban on anonymous donations to political parties?
  • CodeYes
  • CommentNo one may deposit money for a political party (via the Election Commission) anonymously.
  • Source
8. Is there a ban on anonymous donations to candidates?
  • CodeYes, above certain threshold
  • CommentAnonymous donations below 100,000 won [I$ 120] at a time, or 1,2 million won [I$ 1,500] annually, are allowed.
  • Source
9. Is there a ban on donations from corporations with government contracts to political parties?
10. Is there a ban on donations from corporations with government contracts to candidates?
11. Is there a ban on donations from corporations with partial government ownership to political parties?
12. Is there a ban on donations from corporations with partial government ownership to candidates?
13. Is there a ban on the use of state resources in favour or against a political party or candidate?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
    1. Public officials must not campaign while on duty, and public institutions cannot engage in campaigning.
  • Source
14. Is there a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party during a non-election specific period?
  • CodeYes, for natural persons
  • Comment
  • Source

    p. 159 'The amount each individual can contribute each year is between USD 100 000 and less than 5% of his/her income of the previous year, whichever is larger. ' (Source: Financing Democracy: Funding of Political Parties and Election Campaigns and the Risk of Policy Capture. OECD. 2016.)

15. If there is a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party during a non-election specific period, what is the limit?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment
  • Source
16. Is there a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party during an election?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
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17. If there is a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party during an election, what is the limit?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment
  • Source
18. Is there a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a candidate?
19. If there is a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a candidate, what is the limit?
  • Code Limit is 20 million Won [I$ 24,000] a year to Political Fundraising Associations for candidates and the National Assembly members.
  • CommentAn indivudual may not contribute more than a total of 20 million Won [I$ 24,000] a year to a Political Fundraising Association. Furthermore, the following limits apply:

    • Under 10 million Won [I$ 12,000] may be donate to:?Candidates (and reserve candidates) for Presidental elections and candidates for the intra-party competitive election for Presidential Elections:?
    • Under 5 million Won [I$ 6,100] may be donate to:?National Assembly Members, Candidates and reserve candidates for the National Assembly election for a local constituency, Candidates for the Party Leadership elections, Candidates for the election of Governors and Mayors of the Special City and Metropolitan Cities:?
  • Source
20. Is there a limit on the amount a candidate can contribute to their own election campaign?
21. Is there a limit on in-kind donations to political parties?
22. Is there a limit on in-kind donations to candidates?
23. Is there a ban on political parties engaging in commercial activities?
24. Is there a ban on political parties taking loans in relation to election campaigns?
25. Is there a ban on candidates taking loans in relation to election campaigns?
26. Is there a ban on donors to political parties/candidates participating in public tender/procurement processes?
27. Are there provisions requiring donations to go through the banking system?

Question Value
28. Are there provisions for direct public funding to political parties?
  • CodeYes, both regularly and in relation to campaigns
  • Comment
  • Source
29. What are the eligibility criteria for political parties to receive public funding?
  • CodeRepresentation in elected body | Share of votes in previous election | Share of seats in previous election
  • CommentExtra subsidies are also given to parties with handicapped and women candidates.
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30. What is the allocation calculation for political parties to receive public funding?
  • CodeEqual | Proportional to votes received | Share of expenses reimbursed
  • Comment
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31. What are the provisions on 'ear marking' direct public funding to political parties (how it should be used)?
  • CodeCampaign spending | Ongoing party activities | Intra-party institution
  • CommentAt least 30% to policy research center, 10% to Si/Do parties (local bodies) and 10% for 'the political development of women', in case of public subsidy for party's routine operation.
  • Source
32. Are there provisions for free or subsidized access to media for political parties?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

     

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33. What criteria determine allocation for free or subsidized access to media for political parties?
  • CodeShare of seats | Votes Received
  • CommentParties with Parliamentary representation receive subsidised access. Parties receive a specific reimbursement for media expenses, half the cost if they reach 10% of the vote and all if they reach 15%.
  • Source
34. Are there provisions for free or subsidized access to media for candidates?
  • CodeYes
  • CommentAdvertising is paid for, but there are specific reimbursement for media costs.
  • Source
35. Are there provisions for any other form of indirect public funding?
  • CodeYes
  • CommentTax exemptions for political contributions. Certain campaign expenses are borne by the state or local governments for candidates. Political parties may, for meetings, use citizens' halls, gymnasiums, or cultural centers owned or managed by the state or local governments.
  • Source
36. Is the provision of direct public funding to political parties tied to gender equality among candidates?
  • CodeYes
  • CommentFemale candidate nomination subsidies are distributed to political parties based on the ratios of the National Assembly seats held and the votes polled
  • Source
37. Are there provisions for other financial advantages to encourage gender equality in political parties?
  • CodeYes, funds earmarked for gender activities | Other
  • Comment

    10% of public funding to political parties must be used for 'the political development of women'.

  • Source

Question Value
38. Is there a ban on vote buying?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
  • Source
39. Are there limits on the amount a political party can spend?
  • CodeYes
  • CommentPolitical party campaign expenses for presidential and Legislative elections are subject to limits in the Public Official Act.
  • Source
40. If there are limits on the amount a political party can spend, what is the limit?
  • Code Multiple of population size in electoral area; multiple varies per type of election
  • Comment
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41. Are there limits on the amount a candidate can spend?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
  • Source
42. If there are limits on the amount a candidate can spend, what is the limit?
  • Code Limit is a multiple of the population size in each electoral area; multiple varies per type of election
  • Comment
  • Source
43. Are there limits on the amount that third parties can spend on election campaign activities?
44. Are there limits on traditional media advertising spending in relation to election campaigns?
45. Are there limits on online media advertising spending in relation to election campaigns?
46. Do any other restrictions on online media advertisement (beyond limits) exist?

Question Value
47. Do political parties have to report regularly on their finances?
  • CodeYes
  • CommentAnnually
  • Source
48. Do political parties have to report on their election campaign finances?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
  • Source
49. Do candidates have to report on their election campaign finances?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
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50. Do third parties have to report on election campaign finances?
51. Is information in reports from political parties and/or candidates to be made public?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
  • Source
52. Must reports from political parties and/or candidates reveal the identity of donors?
  • CodeSometimes
  • CommentThe personal matters and amounts of a donor who donates less than 3 million won [I$ 3,600] per year (5 million won [I$ 6,100] in the case of Political Fundraising Association of candidates and reserve candidates for the Presidential election) is not made public.
  • Source
53. Must reports from political parties and/or candidates include information on itemized income?
54. Must reports from political parties and/or candidates include information on itemized spending?
55. Which institution(s) receives financial reports from political parties and/or candidates?
  • CodeEMB
  • Comment
  • Source
56. Which institution(s) is responsible for examining financial reports and/or investigating violations?
  • CodeEMB
  • Comment
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57. What power is granted to the institution(s) responsible for examining reports and/or investigating violations?
58. What sanctions are provided for political finance infractions?
  • CodeFines | Prison | Forfeiture | Loss of public funding | Loss of elected office | Other
  • Comment
  • Source

Disclaimer: Maps presented do not imply on the part of the Institute any judgement on the legal status of any territory or the endorsement of such boundaries, nor does the placement or size of any country or territory reflect the political view of International IDEA. Maps are used in order to add visual clarity to data.