Switzerland

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Question Value
1. Is there a ban on donations from foreign interests to political parties?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    Ban does not exist on the federal level. Some cantons (Geneva, Tessin, Neuchatel) have their own regulations.

  • Source

    https://www.humanrights.ch/de/menschenrechte-schweiz/inneres/innenpolitik/intransparenz-parteifinanzierung

2. Is there a ban on donations from foreign interests to candidates?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source

    https://www.swissinfo.ch/eng/politics/2015-party-campaigns_concern-as-election-funding-remains-under-wraps/41494460

3. Is there a ban on corporate donations to political parties?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    Ban does not exist on the federal level. Some cantons (Geneva, Tessin, Neuchatel) have their own regulations.

  • Source
4. Is there a ban on corporate donations to candidates?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
5. Is there a ban on donations from Trade Unions to political parties?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
6. Is there a ban on donations from Trade Unions to candidates?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
7. Is there a ban on anonymous donations to political parties?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    Ban does not exist on the federal level. In Geneva anonymous donations and donations under a pseudonym are prohibited.

  • Source

    https://www.humanrights.ch/de/menschenrechte-schweiz/inneres/innenpolitik/intransparenz-parteifinanzierung

8. Is there a ban on anonymous donations to candidates?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
9. Is there a ban on donations from corporations with government contracts to political parties?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    Parties can receive unlimited funds from any source without any requirements of disclosure.

  • Source

    D. Party and Campaign Financing, Swiss Confederation Federal Elections, 2007

10. Is there a ban on donations from corporations with government contracts to candidates?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    Parties can receive unlimited funds from any source without any requirements of disclosure.

  • Source

    D. Party and Campaign Financing, Swiss Confederation Federal Elections, 2007

11. Is there a ban on donations from corporations with partial government ownership to political parties?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    Parties can receive unlimited funds from any source without any requirements of disclosure.

  • Source

    D. Party and Campaign Financing, Swiss Confederation Federal Elections, 2007

12. Is there a ban on donations from corporations with partial government ownership to candidates?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    Parties can receive unlimited funds from any source without any requirements of disclosure.

  • Source

    D. Party and Campaign Financing, Swiss Confederation Federal Elections, 2007

13. Is there a ban on the use of state resources in favour or against a political party or candidate?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    Switzerland does not directly finance parties with public money on the federal level.

  • Source

    Sustainable Governance Indicators, Switzerland Report, 2011

14. Is there a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party during a non-election specific period?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
15. If there is a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party during a non-election specific period, what is the limit?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment
  • Source
16. Is there a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party during an election?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
17. If there is a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party during an election, what is the limit?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment
  • Source
18. Is there a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a candidate?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
19. If there is a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a candidate, what is the limit?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment
  • Source
20. Is there a limit on the amount a candidate can contribute to their own election campaign?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
21. Is there a limit on in-kind donations to political parties?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
22. Is there a limit on in-kind donations to candidates?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
23. Is there a ban on political parties engaging in commercial activities?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
24. Is there a ban on political parties taking loans in relation to election campaigns?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
25. Is there a ban on candidates taking loans in relation to election campaigns?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
26. Is there a ban on donors to political parties/candidates participating in public tender/procurement processes?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    Parties can receive unlimited funds from any source without any requirements of disclosure. There is no obligation on any kind of transparency of donators, so donors cannot be identified and restricted.
     

  • Source

    D. Party and Campaign Financing, Swiss Confederation Federal Elections, 2007

27. Are there provisions requiring donations to go through the banking system?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    Parties can receive unlimited funds from any source without any requirements of disclosure.
     

  • Source

    D. Party and Campaign Financing, Swiss Confederation Federal Elections, 2007

Question Value
28. Are there provisions for direct public funding to political parties?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
29. What are the eligibility criteria for political parties to receive public funding?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment
  • Source
30. What is the allocation calculation for political parties to receive public funding?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment
  • Source
31. What are the provisions on 'ear marking' direct public funding to political parties (how it should be used)?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment
  • Source
32. Are there provisions for free or subsidized access to media for political parties?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    12, 'Parallel to statutory norms, the public service broadcasting SRG and its enterprise units have elaborated on a number of principles that must inform their editorial coverage. In addition, on the occasion of Federal elections, the SRG SSR General Directorate issued detailed instructions on election coverage for its enterprise units. The instructions set forth the principles and rules informing both election-related and non-election programmes. Consistent with the jurisprudence of the Federal Tribunal, the instructions defined the criteria for the allocation of airtime to candidates during debates and presentations of political parties: access was guaranteed on a proportional basis, according to parliamentary representation at Federal or Cantonal level and the number of candidates lists submitted in different cantons.' 

  • Source

    OSCE/ODIHR (2007) Swiss Confederation, Federal Elections 21 October 2007, OSCE/ODIHR Needs Assessment Mission Report 19-22 June 2007

33. What criteria determine allocation for free or subsidized access to media for political parties?
  • CodeNumber of candidates | Share of seats
  • Comment

    'Parallel to statutory norms, the public service broadcasting SRG and its enterprise units have elaborated on a number of principles that must inform their editorial coverage. In addition, on the occasion of Federal elections, the SRG SSR General Directorate issued detailed instructions on election coverage for its enterprise units. The instructions set forth the principles and rules informing both election-related and non-election programmes. Consistent with the jurisprudence of the Federal Tribunal, the instructions defined the criteria for the allocation of airtime to candidates during debates and presentations of political parties: access was guaranteed on a proportional basis, according to parliamentary representation at Federal or Cantonal level and the number of candidates lists submitted in different cantons. (OSCE 2008, p 12)'

  • Source

    Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (2008), 'SWISS CONFEDERATION FEDERAL ELECTIONS 21 October 2007 - OSCE/ODIHR Election Assessment Mission Report'; Warsaw' (Source: OSCE/ODIHR (2007) Swiss Confederation, Federal Elections 21 October 2007, OSCE/ODIHR Needs Assessment Mission Report 19-22 June 2007)

34. Are there provisions for free or subsidized access to media for candidates?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    P 10, 'Candidates and parties may purchase political advertising in the print media. The only restriction to the equal access by candidates and parties to these media outlets concerns the availability of resources. In contrast, political advertising on television or other broadcast mediums is unlawful. In that regard, all candidates and parties are equal in access, in the sense that none has a chance to buy political advertising on broadcast media.' [no mention of free or subsidised access]  

  • Source

    Bertelsmann Stiftung (2011) Switzerland report, Sustainable Governance Indicators 2011

35. Are there provisions for any other form of indirect public funding?
  • CodeTax relief | Space for campaign materials | Premises for campaign meetings | Free or subsidised transport | Free or subsidised postage cost
  • Comment

    ax deductions have recently been introduced for donations to political parties, under the federal Act of 12 June 2009 on the deductibility of payments to political parties, which amended the existing law on the subject at federal and cantonal levels.‌ In the case of federal income tax, for example, subscriptions and other payments to political parties of up to CHF 10 000 (about € 8 200) may be deducted from taxable income subject to one of the following conditions: a) the party is registered on the register of parties (see paragraphs 15 and 16); b) it is represented in a cantonal parliament, or c) it obtained at least 3% of the vote at the most recent elections to a cantonal parliament (section 33.‌1.‌i of the Federal Direct Tax Act of 14 December 1990, amended 2014.‌ In the case of cantonal taxes, subscriptions and other payments to political parties up to a level specified in cantonal law that meet one of the three aforementioned representativeness conditions may be deducted from taxable income.‌ The relevant provision is section 9.‌2.‌l of the federal Act of 14 December 1990 on the harmonisation of cantonal and communal direct taxes, as amended by the Act of 12 June 2009.‌ The cantons are required to amend their legislation within two years of the entry into force of this modification.‌ When this deadline expires, section 9.‌2.‌l will be directly applicable if the relevant cantonal tax legislation fails to meet these requirements and the sums referred to in section 33.‌1.‌i will then be applicable.‌

  • Source

    GRECO (2011) Evaluation Report on Switzerland, Transparency of Party Funding (Theme II)

36. Is the provision of direct public funding to political parties tied to gender equality among candidates?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment
  • Source
37. Are there provisions for other financial advantages to encourage gender equality in political parties?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    In the report it is stated that:'Political parties and civil society should be encouraged to consider further measures to develop programs that may increase the number of women candidates. In addition, the Swiss government may further consider the development of mechanisms that enhance women?s political participation (OSCE 2008, p 14) 

  • Source

    Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (2008), 'SWISS CONFEDERATION FEDERAL ELECTIONS 21 October 2007 - OSCE/ODIHR Election Assessment Mission Report'; Warsaw (Source: OSCE/ODIHR (2007) Swiss Confederation, Federal Elections 21 October 2007, OSCE/ODIHR Needs Assessment Mission Report 19-22 June 2007

Question Value
38. Is there a ban on vote buying?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    Any person who offers, promises, or gives a voter or arranges for a voter to be given a gift or other advantage in return for voting in a particular way, or in return for signing or refusing to sign a request for a referendum or an initiative, any person who offers, promises, or gives a voter or arranges for a voter to be given a gift or other advantage in return for not participating in an election or vote, and any person who as a voter secures the promise of or arranges for himself to be given such an advantage, shall be liable to a custodial sentence not exceeding three years or to a monetary penalty.‌

  • Source

    Swiss Criminal Code 1937, amended 2011, Article 281.

39. Are there limits on the amount a political party can spend?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
40. If there are limits on the amount a political party can spend, what is the limit?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment
  • Source
41. Are there limits on the amount a candidate can spend?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
42. If there are limits on the amount a candidate can spend, what is the limit?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment
  • Source
43. Are there limits on the amount that third parties can spend on election campaign activities?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    There are no legal provisions on party and campaign financing at federal level, although campaigns for federal elections are increasingly more focused on nation-wide platforms. Parties can receive unlimited funds from any source without any requirements of disclosure.

  • Source

    D. Party and Campaign Financing, Swiss Confederation Federal Elections, 2007

44. Are there limits on traditional media advertising spending in relation to election campaigns?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    There is neither any specific legislation for media coverage of the election campaign, nor are there provisions establishing rights of access to the media for political parties and candidates. Rather, the existing regulatory model for electronic media is a mixture of statutory provisions of a general nature.

    There are no specific legal provisions for print media. Newspapers and magazines are allowed to sell advertising space to candidates and political parties. The Declaration of Duties and Rights of Journalists - defining the obligations for professional and accurate reporting - represents the only self-regulatory instrument guiding journalists’ activities.
    Candidates and parties may purchase political advertising in the print media. The only restriction to the equal access by candidates and parties to these media outlets concerns the availability of resources. In contrast, political advertising on television or other broadcast mediums is unlawful. In that regard, all candidates and parties are equal in access, in the sense that none has a chance to buy political advertising on broadcast media.

  • Source

    VII Media, B. Regulation for Election Coverage, Swiss Confederation Federal Elections, 2007; Sustainable Governance Indicators, Switzerland Report, 2011

45. Are there limits on online media advertising spending in relation to election campaigns?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    The parties also made use of the internet by inserting their political platforms, slogans, photos videos, petitions, candidate meeting agendas during the campaign and, in some cases, creating blogs with the voters. In addition, local electoral campaign tradition played an important role.

  • Source

    VI Campaign, Swiss Confederation Federal Elections, 2007

46. Do any other restrictions on online media advertisement (beyond limits) exist?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    The parties also made use of the internet by inserting their political platforms, slogans, photos videos, petitions, candidate meeting agendas during the campaign and, in some cases, creating blogs with the voters. In addition, local electoral campaign tradition played an important role.

  • Source

    VI Campaign, Swiss Confederation Federal Elections, 2007

Question Value
47. Do political parties have to report regularly on their finances?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    There are no legal provisions on party and campaign financing at federal level, although campaigns for federal elections are increasingly more focused on nation-wide platforms. Parties can receive unlimited funds from any source without any requirements of disclosure.

  • Source

    D. Party and Campaign Financing, Swiss Confederation Federal Elections, 2007

48. Do political parties have to report on their election campaign finances?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    There are no legal provisions on party and campaign financing at federal level, although campaigns for federal elections are increasingly more focused on nation-wide platforms. Parties can receive unlimited funds from any source without any requirements of disclosure.

  • Source

    D. Party and Campaign Financing, Swiss Confederation Federal Elections, 2007

49. Do candidates have to report on their election campaign finances?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    There are no legal provisions on party and campaign financing at federal level, although campaigns for federal elections are increasingly more focused on nation-wide platforms. Parties can receive unlimited funds from any source without any requirements of disclosure.

  • Source

    D. Party and Campaign Financing, Swiss Confederation Federal Elections, 2007

50. Do third parties have to report on election campaign finances?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    There are no legal provisions on party and campaign financing at federal level, although campaigns for federal elections are increasingly more focused on nation-wide platforms. Parties can receive unlimited funds from any source without any requirements of disclosure.

  • Source

    D. Party and Campaign Financing, Swiss Confederation Federal Elections, 2007

51. Is information in reports from political parties and/or candidates to be made public?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment
  • Source
52. Must reports from political parties and/or candidates reveal the identity of donors?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment
  • Source
53. Must reports from political parties and/or candidates include information on itemized income?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment
  • Source
54. Must reports from political parties and/or candidates include information on itemized spending?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment
  • Source
55. Which institution(s) receives financial reports from political parties and/or candidates?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment
  • Source
56. Which institution(s) is responsible for examining financial reports and/or investigating violations?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
57. What power is granted to the institution(s) responsible for examining reports and/or investigating violations?
  • Code Not applicable
  • Comment
  • Source
58. What sanctions are provided for political finance infractions?
  • CodeNone
  • Comment

    There are only sanctions on the sub-national level.
    Nur in den Kantonen Tessin, Genf und Neuenburg ist die Parteifinanzierung reglementiert.
    Ihre Reglemente sind jedoch ziemlich locker. Im Kanton Tessin müssen nur Spenden über 10'000 SFr. offengelegt und bei kantonalen Wahlen und Abstimmungen alle Ausgaben über 5‘000 SFr. angegeben werden. Genf verpflichtet die Parteien jedes Jahr, ihre Konten offenlegen und ihre Spender nennen, ohne jedoch den gespendeten Betrag veröffentlichen zu müssen. Ein 2013 eingeführtes Gesetz im Kanton Neuenburg besagt, dass Spenden ab 5‘000 SFr. mit Namen der Spender angegeben werden müssen.

  • Source

    Korruptionsstrafrecht, 2016; vimentis.ch, 2015

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