Brazil

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Question Value
Legal provisions for mandatory referendums at national level
  • No
Legal provisions for optional referendums at national level
  • Yes
Legal provisions for citizens' initiatives at national level
    Legal provisions for agenda initiatives at national level
    • Yes
    Legal provisions for recall at national level
    • No
    Legal provisions for direct democracy at the regional level
    • Optional referendum
    • Agenda initiative
    Legal provisions for direct democracy at the local level
    • Optional referendum
    • Agenda initiative
    Legal basis for direct democracy at the national level
    • Constitutional
    • Specific laws/legislation
    Legal basis for administrative requirements at the national level
    • Constitutional
    • Specific laws/legislation
    Who administers direct democracy mechanisms at the national level?
    • Independent electoral commission
    First referendum/initiative held
    • 1963
    Has there been a national referendum since 1980?
    • Yes

    Question Value
    Issues in relation to which referendums are mandatory at the national level
    • None
    Issues in relation to which referendums are optional at the national level
    • Any issue of national importance
    Issues excluded from being the subject of referendums at the national level
    • None
    Issues of sub-national referendums regulated at the national level
    • Creation/merger/abolition of sub-national territories
    Who can initiate an optional referendum at the national level?
    • Congress
    Who drafts the referendum question?
    • Optional referendum - Independent electoral commission
    Who decides on the final form of the ballot text?
    • Not specified by legislation
    Quorum requirements for a referendum to be valid
    • Not specified by legislation
    Requirements for a referendum to pass
    • Optional referendum - simple majority
    Are referendum results binding?
    • Optional referendum - always

    Question Value
    Issues that can be proposed by citizens using the initiative process at the national level
    • Agenda initiatives - legislative proposals
    Issues excluded from being the subject of an initiative at the national level
    • Civil service
    • Taxes and public expenditure commitments
    • See also quotes
    Who may propose the registration of an initiative?
    • Not specified by legislation
    Materials to accompany an application for registration
    • Full proposed text
    Who determines the title of an initiative?
    • Not specified by legislation
    What disqualifies a proposed title of an initiative?
    • More than one subject area
    Who is responsible for checking the legality of initiatives?
    • Legislature
    At which stage legality check is conducted?
    • After its submission but before the vote on the initiative
    Who decides the final ballot text when the initiative is put to a vote?
    • Not applicable
    When does voting take place once an initiative is qualified for ballot?
    • Not applicable

    Question Value
    Which individuals/positions may be subject to the recall?
      What are the grounds for recall?
        What restrictions are there in relation to the time period in which an individual or position can be recalled?
          When is the recall put to the vote?
            When does the election to replace an individual who has been recalled take place?
              Can an individual who is the subject of a recall stand on the ballot for his/her own replacement?

                Question Value
                How many signatures are required to start the formal decision making stage of a direct democracy mechanism?
                • Agenda Initiative - proportion of the electorate
                What is the deadline for collecting required number of signatures?
                • Agenda Initiative - signatures are collected before submission
                Restrictions in relation to the individuals who can sign the proposal
                • Not specified by legislation
                Where can proposals be signed?
                • Not specified by legislation
                What information must signatories provide when signing the proposal?
                • Not specified by legislation
                Restrictions in relation to signature collection
                • Not specified by legislation
                What forms of checks are undertaken to verify signatures?
                • See comments
                Who checks the signatures?
                • Legislature (see quotes)