Australia

Change country

Question Value
Legal provisions for mandatory referendums at national level
  • Yes
Legal provisions for optional referendums at national level
  • No, but ad hoc referendums are possible
Legal provisions for citizens' initiatives at national level
  • No
Legal provisions for agenda initiatives at national level
  • No
Legal provisions for recall at national level
  • No
Legal provisions for direct democracy at the regional level
  • Mandatory referendum
  • Optional referendum
  • Citizens' initiative
Legal provisions for direct democracy at the local level
  • Mandatory referendum
  • Optional referendum
Legal basis for direct democracy at the national level
  • Constitutional
Legal basis for administrative requirements at the national level
  • Constitutional
  • Specific laws/legislation
  • Regulations
Who administers direct democracy mechanisms at the national level?
  • Independent electoral commission
First referendum/initiative held
  • 1898
Has there been a national referendum since 1980?
  • Yes

Question Value
Issues in relation to which referendums are mandatory at the national level
  • Constitutional amendments
Issues in relation to which referendums are optional at the national level
  • Any issue of national importance
Issues excluded from being the subject of referendums at the national level
  • None
Issues of sub-national referendums regulated at the national level
  • Creation/merger/abolition of sub-national territories
Who can initiate an optional referendum at the national level?
  • Not applicable
Who drafts the referendum question?
  • Mandatory referendum - Legislature
Who decides on the final form of the ballot text?
  • Mandatory referendum - Independent electoral commission
  • Mandatory referendum - Legislature
Quorum requirements for a referendum to be valid
  • Not specified by legislation
Requirements for a referendum to pass
  • Mandatory referendum - double majority
Are referendum results binding?
  • Mandatory referendum - always

Question Value
Issues that can be proposed by citizens using the initiative process at the national level
    Issues excluded from being the subject of an initiative at the national level
      Who may propose the registration of an initiative?
        Materials to accompany an application for registration
          Who determines the title of an initiative?
            What disqualifies a proposed title of an initiative?
              Who is responsible for checking the legality of initiatives?
                At which stage legality check is conducted?
                  Who decides the final ballot text when the initiative is put to a vote?
                    When does voting take place once an initiative is qualified for ballot?

                      Question Value
                      Which individuals/positions may be subject to the recall?
                        What are the grounds for recall?
                          What restrictions are there in relation to the time period in which an individual or position can be recalled?
                            When is the recall put to the vote?
                              When does the election to replace an individual who has been recalled take place?
                                Can an individual who is the subject of a recall stand on the ballot for his/her own replacement?

                                  Question Value
                                  How many signatures are required to start the formal decision making stage of a direct democracy mechanism?
                                    What is the deadline for collecting required number of signatures?
                                      Restrictions in relation to the individuals who can sign the proposal
                                        Where can proposals be signed?
                                          What information must signatories provide when signing the proposal?
                                            Restrictions in relation to signature collection
                                              What forms of checks are undertaken to verify signatures?
                                                Who checks the signatures?