Venezuela

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Question Value
Legal provisions for mandatory referendums at national level
  • Yes
Legal provisions for optional referendums at national level
  • Yes
Legal provisions for citizens' initiatives at national level
  • Yes
Legal provisions for agenda initiatives at national level
  • No
Legal provisions for recall at national level
  • Yes
Legal provisions for direct democracy at the regional level
  • Optional referendum
  • Recall
Legal provisions for direct democracy at the local level
  • Optional referendum
  • Recall
Legal basis for direct democracy at the national level
  • Constitutional
  • See comment
Legal basis for administrative requirements at the national level
  • Constitutional
  • Regulations
Who administers direct democracy mechanisms at the national level?
  • Independent electoral commission
First referendum/initiative held
  • 1957
Has there been a national referendum since 1980?
  • Yes

Question Value
Issues in relation to which referendums are mandatory at the national level
  • Constitutional amendments
Issues in relation to which referendums are optional at the national level
  • Transfer of authority to international bodies
  • National sovereignty, national self-determination
  • Any issue of national importance, except those excluded
  • Any bill being discussed by the Legislature
Issues excluded from being the subject of referendums at the national level
  • Taxes and public expenditure commitments
  • Any amnesty law, or those that protect, guarantee or develop human rights as well as those that approve international treaties
Issues of sub-national referendums regulated at the national level
  • None
Who can initiate an optional referendum at the national level?
  • President
  • Legislative majority
  • Registered electors
Who drafts the referendum question?
  • Mandatory referendum - Independent electoral commission
  • Optional referendum - Independent electoral commission
Who decides on the final form of the ballot text?
  • Mandatory referendum - Independent electoral commission
  • Optional referendum - Independent electoral commission
Quorum requirements for a referendum to be valid
  • Optional referendum - turnout quorum
Requirements for a referendum to pass
  • Mandatory referendum - simple majority
  • Optional referendum - simple majority
Are referendum results binding?
  • Mandatory referendum - always
  • Optional referendum - sometimes

Question Value
Issues that can be proposed by citizens using the initiative process at the national level
  • Not specified by legislation
Issues excluded from being the subject of an initiative at the national level
  • No provisions in this regard have been adopted, since the required law on the subject matter has not been issued yet
Who may propose the registration of an initiative?
  • No provisions in this regard have been adopted, since the required law on the subject matter has not been issued yet
Materials to accompany an application for registration
  • No provisions in this regard have been adopted, since the required law on the subject matter has not been issued yet
Who determines the title of an initiative?
  • No provisions in this regard have been adopted, since the required law on the subject matter has not been issued yet
What disqualifies a proposed title of an initiative?
  • No provisions in this regard have been adopted, since the required law on the subject matter has not been issued yet
Who is responsible for checking the legality of initiatives?
  • No provisions in this regard have been adopted, since the required law on the subject matter has not been issued yet
At which stage legality check is conducted?
  • No provisions in this regard have been adopted, since the required law on the subject matter has not been issued yet
Who decides the final ballot text when the initiative is put to a vote?
  • No provisions in this regard have been adopted, since the required law on the subject matter has not been issued yet
When does voting take place once an initiative is qualified for ballot?
  • No provisions in this regard have been adopted, since the required law on the subject matter has not been issued yet

Question Value
Which individuals/positions may be subject to the recall?
  • Members of the national legislature
  • President
  • National level appointed executive positions
  • Members of provincial/local legislature bodies
What are the grounds for recall?
  • Not specified by legislation
What restrictions are there in relation to the time period in which an individual or position can be recalled?
  • Recall can only be activated once half of the term in office of the elected official has been elapsed
When is the recall put to the vote?
  • The Legal provisions on the subject matter are still pending. The recall process conducted in 2007 was held around four months after requirements were met
When does the election to replace an individual who has been recalled take place?
  • Separately and subsequently
Can an individual who is the subject of a recall stand on the ballot for his/her own replacement?
  • No

Question Value
How many signatures are required to start the formal decision making stage of a direct democracy mechanism?
  • Referendum - proportion of the electorate
  • Recall - proportion of the electorate
What is the deadline for collecting required number of signatures?
  • Recall - fixed time period
Restrictions in relation to the individuals who can sign the proposal
  • Recall - signatories must be registered electors in a specified electoral district
Where can proposals be signed?
  • Anywhere
  • At specified places
What information must signatories provide when signing the proposal?
  • Identity or voting card number
  • Copy of thumbprint
Restrictions in relation to signature collection
  • No legal provisions have been issued in the cases of referendum and initiative. No requirement of this type in the case of recall
What forms of checks are undertaken to verify signatures?
  • All signatures are checked
Who checks the signatures?
  • Agency responsible for the administration of direct democracy mechanisms