Trinidad and Tobago

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Question Value
1. Is there a ban on donations from foreign interests to political parties?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    There are no regulations regarding donations for the political parties.

  • Source

    Source: Representation of the People Act, 1967 (updated 2015)

    While a regime of accountability is outlined under sections 44 to 49 of the Act in respect of each candidate’s funding and expenditure, it should be noted that there is no similar requirement of accountability established for political parties.

    Source: The Commonwealth (2015), Reports of the Commonwealth Observer Group, Trinidad and Tobago Parliamentary Elections 7 September 2015, The Commonwealth, London

2. Is there a ban on donations from foreign interests to candidates?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    There are very limited regulations concerning donations to the candidates.

  • Source

    Source: Representation of the People Act, 1967 (updated 2015)

3. Is there a ban on corporate donations to political parties?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    There are no regulations regarding donations for the political parties.

  • Source

    Source: Representation of the People Act, 1967 (updated 2015)

    While a regime of accountability is outlined under sections 44 to 49 of the Act in respect of each candidate’s funding and expenditure, it should be noted that there is no similar requirement of accountability established for political parties.

    Source: The Commonwealth (2015), Reports of the Commonwealth Observer Group, Trinidad and Tobago Parliamentary Elections 7 September 2015, The Commonwealth, London

4. Is there a ban on corporate donations to candidates?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    There are very limited regulations concerning donations to the candidates.

  • Source

    Source: Representation of the People Act, 1967 (updated 2015)

5. Is there a ban on donations from Trade Unions to political parties?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    There are no regulations regarding donations for the political parties.

  • Source

    Source: Representation of the People Act, 1967 (updated 2015)

    While a regime of accountability is outlined under sections 44 to 49 of the Act in respect of each candidate’s funding and expenditure, it should be noted that there is no similar requirement of accountability established for political parties.
    Source: The Commonwealth (2015), Reports of the Commonwealth Observer Group, Trinidad and Tobago Parliamentary Elections 7 September 2015, The Commonwealth, London

6. Is there a ban on donations from Trade Unions to candidates?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    There are very limited regulations concerning donations to the candidates.

  • Source

    Source: Representation of the People Act, 1967 (updated 2015)

7. Is there a ban on anonymous donations to political parties?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    There are no regulations regarding donations for the political parties.

  • Source

    Source: Representation of the People Act, 1967 (updated 2015)

    While a regime of accountability is outlined under sections 44 to 49 of the Act in respect of each candidate’s funding and expenditure, it should be noted that there is no similar requirement of accountability established for political parties.
    Source: The Commonwealth (2015), Reports of the Commonwealth Observer Group, Trinidad and Tobago Parliamentary Elections 7 September 2015, The Commonwealth, London

8. Is there a ban on anonymous donations to candidates?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    Yes, the candidates must report names of all donors.

  • Source

    52 (3) The return shall also contain with respect to that candidate – [...]

    (d) a statement of all money, securities and equivalent of money received by the election agent from the candidate or any other person for the purposes of election expenses incurred or to be incurred, with a statement of the name of every person from whom they may have been received.

    Source: Article 52 (3), Representation of the People Act, 1967 (updated 2015)

9. Is there a ban on donations from corporations with government contracts to political parties?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    There are no regulations regarding the political parties' finance.

  • Source

    Source: Representation of the People Act, 1967 (updated 2015)

    While a regime of accountability is outlined under sections 44 to 49 of the Act in respect of each candidate’s funding and expenditure, it should be noted that there is no similar requirement of accountability established for political parties.
    Source: The Commonwealth (2015), Reports of the Commonwealth Observer Group, Trinidad and Tobago Parliamentary Elections 7 September 2015, The Commonwealth, London

10. Is there a ban on donations from corporations with government contracts to candidates?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    There are very limited regulations concerning donations to the candidates.

  • Source

    Source: Representation of the People Act, 1967 (updated 2015)

11. Is there a ban on donations from corporations with partial government ownership to political parties?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    There are no regulations regarding donations for the political parties.

  • Source

    Source: Representation of the People Act, 1967 (updated 2015)

    While a regime of accountability is outlined under sections 44 to 49 of the Act in respect of each candidate’s funding and expenditure, it should be noted that there is no similar requirement of accountability established for political parties.
    Source: The Commonwealth (2015), Reports of the Commonwealth Observer Group, Trinidad and Tobago Parliamentary Elections 7 September 2015, The Commonwealth, London

12. Is there a ban on donations from corporations with partial government ownership to candidates?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    There are very limited regulations concerning income of candidates.

  • Source

    Source: Representation of the People Act, 1967 (updated 2015)

13. Is there a ban on the use of state resources in favour or against a political party or candidate?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    BLANK

  • Source

    Source: Representation of the People Act, 1967 (updated 2015)

14. Is there a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party during a non-election specific period?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    There are no regulations regarding donations for the political parties.

  • Source

    Source: Representation of the People Act, 1967 (updated 2015)

    While a regime of accountability is outlined under sections 44 to 49 of the Act in respect of each candidate’s funding and expenditure, it should be noted that there is no similar requirement of accountability established for political parties.

    Source: The Commonwealth (2015), Reports of the Commonwealth Observer Group, Trinidad and Tobago Parliamentary Elections 7 September 2015, The Commonwealth, London

15. If there is a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party during a non-election specific period, what is the limit?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment
  • Source
16. Is there a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party during an election?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    There are no regulations regarding donations for the political parties.

  • Source

    Source: Representation of the People Act, 1967 (updated 2015)

    While a regime of accountability is outlined under sections 44 to 49 of the Act in respect of each candidate’s funding and expenditure, it should be noted that there is no similar requirement of accountability established for political parties.

    Source: The Commonwealth (2015), Reports of the Commonwealth Observer Group, Trinidad and Tobago Parliamentary Elections 7 September 2015, The Commonwealth, London

17. If there is a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party during an election, what is the limit?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment
  • Source
18. Is there a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a candidate?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    There are no regulations regarding the amount of donations for the candidates.

  • Source

    Source: Representation of the People Act, 1967 (updated 2015)

19. If there is a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a candidate, what is the limit?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment
  • Source
20. Is there a limit on the amount a candidate can contribute to their own election campaign?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    There are no regulations in this matter, but a candidate has a right to cover own personal expenses related to the elections up to 5,000 TTD. This amount is not included in the candidate's overall spending limit.

  • Source

    46. (1) The candidate at an election may pay any personal expenses incurred by him on account of or in connection with or incidental to the election; but the amount which a candidate may pay shall not exceed five thousand dollars, and any further personal expenses so incurred by him shall be paid by his election agent.
    Source: Article 46 (1), Representation of the People Act, 1967 (updated 2015)

    48 (2) The above maximum amount shall not be required to cover the candidate’s personal expenses.
    Source: Article 48 (2), Representation of the People Act, 1967 (updated 2015)

21. Is there a limit on in-kind donations to political parties?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    There are no regulations regarding donations for the political parties.

  • Source

    Source: Representation of the People Act, 1967 (updated 2015)

    While a regime of accountability is outlined under sections 44 to 49 of the Act in respect of each candidate’s funding and expenditure, it should be noted that there is no similar requirement of accountability established for political parties.

    Source: The Commonwealth (2015), Reports of the Commonwealth Observer Group, Trinidad and Tobago Parliamentary Elections 7 September 2015, The Commonwealth, London

22. Is there a limit on in-kind donations to candidates?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    There are no regulations regarding the amount of in-kind donations for the candidates.

  • Source

    Source: Representation of the People Act, 1967 (updated 2015)

23. Is there a ban on political parties engaging in commercial activities?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    There are no regulations regarding the political parties' finance.

  • Source

    Source: Representation of the People Act, 1967 (updated 2015)

    While a regime of accountability is outlined under sections 44 to 49 of the Act in respect of each candidate’s funding and expenditure, it should be noted that there is no similar requirement of accountability established for political parties.

    Source: The Commonwealth (2015), Reports of the Commonwealth Observer Group, Trinidad and Tobago Parliamentary Elections 7 September 2015, The Commonwealth, London

24. Is there a ban on political parties taking loans in relation to election campaigns?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    There are no regulations regarding the political parties' finance.

  • Source

    Source: Representation of the People Act, 1967 (updated 2015)

    While a regime of accountability is outlined under sections 44 to 49 of the Act in respect of each candidate’s funding and expenditure, it should be noted that there is no similar requirement of accountability established for political parties.

    Source: The Commonwealth (2015), Reports of the Commonwealth Observer Group, Trinidad and Tobago Parliamentary Elections 7 September 2015, The Commonwealth, London

25. Is there a ban on candidates taking loans in relation to election campaigns?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    There are very limited regulations concerning income of candidates.

  • Source

    Source: Representation of the People Act, 1967 (updated 2015)

26. Is there a ban on donors to political parties/candidates participating in public tender/procurement processes?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    There are no regulations regarding the political parties' finance.

  • Source

    Source: Representation of the People Act, 1967 (updated 2015)

    While a regime of accountability is outlined under sections 44 to 49 of the Act in respect of each candidate’s funding and expenditure, it should be noted that there is no similar requirement of accountability established for political parties.
    Source: The Commonwealth (2015), Reports of the Commonwealth Observer Group, Trinidad and Tobago Parliamentary Elections 7 September 2015, The Commonwealth, London

27. Are there provisions requiring donations to go through the banking system?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    BLANK

  • Source

    Source: Representation of the People Act, 1967 (updated 2015)

Question Value
28. Are there provisions for direct public funding to political parties?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    BLANK

  • Source

    Source: Representation of the People Act, 1967 (updated 2015)

29. What are the eligibility criteria for political parties to receive public funding?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment
  • Source
30. What is the allocation calculation for political parties to receive public funding?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment
  • Source
31. What are the provisions on 'ear marking' direct public funding to political parties (how it should be used)?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment
  • Source
32. Are there provisions for free or subsidized access to media for political parties?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    BLANK

  • Source

    Source: Representation of the People Act, 1967 (updated 2015)

33. What criteria determine allocation for free or subsidized access to media for political parties?
  • CodeNone
  • Comment

    BLANK

  • Source

    Source: Representation of the People Act, 1967 (updated 2015)

34. Are there provisions for free or subsidized access to media for candidates?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    BLANK

  • Source

    Source: Representation of the People Act, 1967 (updated 2015)

35. Are there provisions for any other form of indirect public funding?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    BLANK

  • Source

    Source: Representation of the People Act, 1967 (updated 2015)

36. Is the provision of direct public funding to political parties tied to gender equality among candidates?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    BLANK

  • Source

    Source: Representation of the People Act, 1967 (updated 2015)

37. Are there provisions for other financial advantages to encourage gender equality in political parties?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    BLANK

  • Source

    Source: Representation of the People Act, 1967 (updated 2015)

Question Value
38. Is there a ban on vote buying?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    BLANK

  • Source

    96 (2) A person is guilty of bribery who, directly or indirectly, by himself or by any other person on his behalf –

    (a) gives any money or procures any office to or for any elector or to or for any other person on behalf of any elector or to or for any other person in order to induce any elector to vote or refrain from voting;

    (b) corruptly does any act as in paragraph (a) on account of any elector having voted or refrained from voting; or

    (c) makes any gift or procurement as in paragraph (a) to or for any person in order to induce that person to procure, or endeavour to procure, the return of any person at an election or the vote of any elector,

    or if upon or in consequence of any such gift or procurement he procures or engages, promises or endeavours to procure the return of any person at an election or the vote of any elector.

    Source: Article 96 (2), Representation of the People Act, 1967 (updated 2015)

39. Are there limits on the amount a political party can spend?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    There are no regulations regarding the political parties' finance.

  • Source

    Source: Representation of the People Act, 1967 (updated 2015)

    While a regime of accountability is outlined under sections 44 to 49 of the Act in respect of each candidate’s funding and expenditure, it should be noted that there is no similar requirement of accountability established for political parties.
    Source: The Commonwealth (2015), Reports of the Commonwealth Observer Group, Trinidad and Tobago Parliamentary Elections 7 September 2015, The Commonwealth, London

40. If there are limits on the amount a political party can spend, what is the limit?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment
  • Source
41. Are there limits on the amount a candidate can spend?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    BLANK

  • Source

    48. (1) No sum shall be paid and no expenses shall be incurred by a candidate at an election or by his election agent whether before, during or after an election on account of or in respect of the conduct or management of an election in excess of the amount of fifty thousand dollars in the case of a Parliamentary election or twenty-five thousand dollars in the case of a Municipal Council or the Tobago House of Assembly election.

    (2) The above maximum amount shall not be required to cover the candidate’s personal expenses. [...]

    Source: Article 48, Representation of the People Act, 1967 (updated 2015)

     

    46. (1) The candidate at an election may pay any personal expenses incurred by him on account of or in connection with or incidental to the election; but the amount which a candidate may pay shall not exceed five thousand dollars, and any further personal expenses so incurred by him shall be paid by his election agent.

    Source: Article 46 (1), Representation of the People Act, 1967 (updated 2015)

42. If there are limits on the amount a candidate can spend, what is the limit?
  • Code50,000 TTD in the case of a Parliamentary election or 25,000 TTD in the case of a Municipal Council or the Tobago House of Assembly election. | Additionally, a candidate has a right to cover own personal expenses related to the elections up to 5,000 TTD. This amount is not included in the candidate's overall spending limit.
  • Comment

    BLANK

  • Source

    48. (1) No sum shall be paid and no expenses shall be incurred by a candidate at an election or by his election agent whether before, during or after an election on account of or in respect of the conduct or management of an election in excess of the amount of fifty thousand dollars in the case of a Parliamentary election or twenty-five thousand dollars in the case of a Municipal Council or the Tobago House of Assembly election.

    (2) The above maximum amount shall not be required to cover the candidate’s personal expenses. [...]

    Source: Article 48, Representation of the People Act, 1967 (updated 2015)

     

    46. (1) The candidate at an election may pay any personal expenses incurred by him on account of or in connection with or incidental to the election; but the amount which a candidate may pay shall not exceed five thousand dollars, and any further personal expenses so incurred by him shall be paid by his election agent.

    Source: Article 46 (1), Representation of the People Act, 1967 (updated 2015)

43. Are there limits on the amount that third parties can spend on election campaign activities?
  • CodeSpending limit exists
  • Comment

    The limit 100 TTD exists for the individuals.  No limit for the expenses "incurred in the holding of any meeting to disseminate political information or to promote the principles of a political party".

  • Source

    47. (1) No expenses shall, with a view to promoting or procuring the election of a candidate at an election, be incurred by any person other than the candidate, his election agent and persons authorised in writing by the election agent on account -

    (a) of holding public meetings or organising any public display;

    (b) of issuing advertisements, circulars or publications; or;

    (c) of otherwise presenting to the electors the candidate or his views or the extent or nature of his backing or disparaging another candidate.

    (2) Subsection (1) shall not -

    (a) restrict the publication of any matter relating to the election in a newspaper or other periodical;

    (b) apply to any expenses not exceeding in the aggregate the sum of one hundred dollars which may be incurred by an individual and are not incurred in pursuance of a plan suggested by or concerted with others or to expenses incurred by any person in travelling or similar personal expenses;

    (c) apply to any expenses incurred in the holding of any meeting to disseminate political information or to promote the principles of a political party or a political or other association in cultivating the goodwill of a constituency.

    Source: Article 47, Representation of the People Act, 1967 (updated 2015)

44. Are there limits on traditional media advertising spending in relation to election campaigns?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    BLANK

  • Source

    Source: Representation of the People Act, 1967 (updated 2015)

45. Are there limits on online media advertising spending in relation to election campaigns?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    BLANK

  • Source

    Source: Representation of the People Act, 1967 (updated 2015)

46. Do any other restrictions on online media advertisement (beyond limits) exist?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    BLANK

  • Source

    Source: Representation of the People Act, 1967 (updated 2015)

Question Value
47. Do political parties have to report regularly on their finances?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    There are no regulations regarding the political parties' finance.

  • Source

    Source: Representation of the People Act, 1967 (updated 2015)

    While a regime of accountability is outlined under sections 44 to 49 of the Act in respect of each candidate’s funding and expenditure, it should be noted that there is no similar requirement of accountability established for political parties.
    Source: The Commonwealth (2015), Reports of the Commonwealth Observer Group, Trinidad and Tobago Parliamentary Elections 7 September 2015, The Commonwealth, London

48. Do political parties have to report on their election campaign finances?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    There are no regulations regarding the political parties' finance.

  • Source

    Source: Representation of the People Act, 1967 (updated 2015)

    While a regime of accountability is outlined under sections 44 to 49 of the Act in respect of each candidate’s funding and expenditure, it should be noted that there is no similar requirement of accountability established for political parties.
    Source: The Commonwealth (2015), Reports of the Commonwealth Observer Group, Trinidad and Tobago Parliamentary Elections 7 September 2015, The Commonwealth, London

49. Do candidates have to report on their election campaign finances?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    BLANK

  • Source

    52. (1) Within forty-two days after the day on which the result of the election is declared, the election agent of every candidate at the election shall transmit to the Chief Election Officer a true return in the form set out as Form No. 4 in the Prescribed Forms Rules containing, as respects that candidate, a statement of all payments made by the election agent together with all the bills and receipts.

    (2) The return shall deal under a separate heading or subheading with any expenses included in the return -

    (a) with respect to which a return is required to be made under section 47(3); or

    (b) which are on account of the remuneration or expenses of speakers at public meetings.

    (3) The return shall also contain with respect to that candidate -

    (a) a statement of the amount of personal expenses, if any, paid by the candidate;

    (b) a statement of all disputed claims of which the election agent is aware;

    (c) a statement of all the unpaid claims, if any, of which the election agent is aware, in respect of which application has been or is about to be made to the High Court;

    (d) a statement of all money, securities and equivalent of money received by the election agent from the candidate or any other person for the purposes of

    election expenses incurred or to be incurred, with a statement of the name of every person from whom they may have been received. [...]

    Source: Article 52, Representation of the People Act, 1967 (updated 2015)

50. Do third parties have to report on election campaign finances?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    BLANK

  • Source

    Source: Representation of the People Act, 1967 (updated 2015)

51. Is information in reports from political parties and/or candidates to be made public?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    BLANK

  • Source

    58. The Chief Election Officer shall, within ten days after he receives from the election agent of a candidate a return as to election expenses, publish a summary of the return in at least one newspaper, accompanied by a notice stating the date on which the return and declaration were received by him and that the return and declaration (including the accompanying documents) can be inspected at the office of the Chief Election Officer.

    Source: Article 58, Representation of the People Act, 1967 (updated 2015)

52. Must reports from political parties and/or candidates reveal the identity of donors?
  • CodeSometimes
  • Comment

    There is no obligation for the political parties to report on their finance.

  • Source

    52 (3) The return shall also contain with respect to that candidate – [...]

    (d) a statement of all money, securities and equivalent of money received by the election agent from the candidate or any other person for the purposes of election expenses incurred or to be incurred, with a statement of the name of every person from whom they may have been received.

    Source: Article 52 (3), Representation of the People Act, 1967 (updated 2015)

53. Must reports from political parties and/or candidates include information on itemized income?
  • CodeSometimes
  • Comment

    Reports from candidates must include itemized information about donation from individuals.

    There are no obligations regarding income from other entities, for example from corporate or Trade Unions.

    There are no regulations regarding the political parties' finance.

  • Source

    52 (3) The return shall also contain with respect to that candidate – [...]

    (d) a statement of all money, securities and equivalent of money received by the election agent from the candidate or any other person for the purposes of election expenses incurred or to be incurred, with a statement of the name of every person from whom they may have been received.

    Source: Article 52 (3), Representation of the People Act, 1967 (updated 2015)

54. Must reports from political parties and/or candidates include information on itemized spending?
  • CodeSometimes
  • Comment

    Reports from candidates must include information on itemized spending.

    There are no regulations regarding the political parties' reporting

  • Source

    52. (1) Within forty-two days after the day on which the result of the election is declared, the election agent of every candidate at the election shall transmit to the Chief Election Officer a true return in the form set out as Form No. 4 in the Prescribed Forms Rules containing, as respects that candidate, a statement of all payments made by the election agent together with all the bills and receipts.

    Source: Article 52 (1), Representation of the People Act, 1967 (updated 2015)

55. Which institution(s) receives financial reports from political parties and/or candidates?
  • CodeEMB
  • Comment

    Only reports from candidates.

    There are no regulations regarding the political parties' reporting.

  • Source

    52. (1) Within forty-two days after the day on which the result of the election is declared, the election agent of every candidate at the election shall transmit to the Chief Election Officer a true return in the form set out as Form No. 4 in the Prescribed Forms Rules containing, as respects that candidate, a statement of all payments made by the election agent together with all the bills and receipts.

    Source: Article 52 (1), Representation of the People Act, 1967 (updated 2015)

56. Which institution(s) is responsible for examining financial reports and/or investigating violations?
  • CodeYes, court
  • Comment

    Only reports from candidates.

    There are no regulations regarding the political parties' reporting.

  • Source

    57. (1) Where on an application under section 56 it appears to the Court that any person who is or has been an election agent has refused or failed to make a return, or to supply the particulars as will enable the candidate and his election agent respectively to comply with the provisions of this Act as to the return or declarations as to election expenses, the Court, before making an Order under the section, shall order that person to attend before the Court.

    (2) The Court shall, on the attendance of that person unless he shows cause to the contrary, order him to make the return and declarations or to deliver a statement of the particulars required to be contained in the return as to the Court seems just, within such time, to such persons and in such manner as the Court may direct, or may order him to be examined with respect to the particulars.

    Source: Article 57, Representation of the People Act, 1967 (updated 2015)

57. What power is granted to the institution(s) responsible for examining reports and/or investigating violations?
  • CodeRequest additional information from potential violator
  • Comment

    Only reports from candidates.

    There are no regulations regarding the political parties' reporting.

  • Source

    57. (1) Where on an application under section 56 it appears to the Court that any person who is or has been an election agent has refused or failed to make a return, or to supply the particulars as will enable the candidate and his election agent respectively to comply with the provisions of this Act as to the return or declarations as to election expenses, the Court, before making an Order under the section, shall order that person to attend before the Court.

    (2) The Court shall, on the attendance of that person unless he shows cause to the contrary, order him to make the return and declarations or to deliver a statement of the particulars required to be contained in the return as to the Court seems just, within such time, to such persons and in such manner as the Court may direct, or may order him to be examined with respect to the particulars.

    Source: Article 57, Representation of the People Act, 1967 (updated 2015)

58. What sanctions are provided for political finance infractions?
  • CodeFines | Prison
  • Comment

    BLANK

  • Source

    101. (1) Except as otherwise specifically provided, a person guilty of an illegal practice is liable on summary conviction to a fine of fifteen thousand dollars or to imprisonment for six months.
    Source: Article 101 (1), Representation of the People Act, 1967 (updated 2015)

    103. (1) A person guilty of an offence of illegal payment or hiring is on summary conviction liable to a fine of one thousand five hundred dollars or to imprisonment for six months, and on prosecution for that offence it shall be sufficient to allege that the person charged was guilty of an illegal payment or hiring, as the case may be.
    Source: Article 101 (1), Representation of the People Act, 1967 (updated 2015)

Disclaimer: Maps presented do not imply on the part of the Institute any judgement on the legal status of any territory or the endorsement of such boundaries, nor does the placement or size of any country or territory reflect the political view of International IDEA. Maps are used in order to add visual clarity to data.