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Question Value
Legal provisions for mandatory referendums at national level
  • No
Legal provisions for optional referendums at national level
  • Yes
Legal provisions for citizens' initiatives at national level
  • No
Legal provisions for agenda initiatives at national level
  • Yes
Legal provisions for recall at national level
  • No
Legal provisions for direct democracy at the regional level
  • Optional referendum
Legal provisions for direct democracy at the local level
  • Mandatory referendum
  • Optional referendum
  • Citizens' initiative
Legal basis for direct democracy at the national level
  • Constitutional
  • Specific laws/legislation
Legal basis for administrative requirements at the national level
  • Specific laws/legislation
  • Regulations
Who administers direct democracy mechanisms at the national level?
  • Independent electoral commission
  • Legislature
First referendum/initiative held
  • 1990
Has there been a national referendum since 1980?
  • Yes

Question Value
Issues in relation to which referendums are mandatory at the national level
  • None
Issues in relation to which referendums are optional at the national level
  • Constitutional amendments
  • Transfer of authority to international bodies
  • Any issue of national importance, except those excluded
Issues excluded from being the subject of referendums at the national level
  • Adoption of international treaties
  • National sovereignty, national self-determination
  • Taxes and public expenditure commitments
  • See also source
Issues of sub-national referendums regulated at the national level
  • Creation/merger/abolition of sub-national territories
  • Any issue of special interest to a sub-national territory
Who can initiate an optional referendum at the national level?
  • Legislative majority
  • Legislative minority
  • Registered electors
Who drafts the referendum question?
  • Optional referendum - Legislature
  • Specified by law for rejective referendum and referendum on constitutional amendments
Who decides on the final form of the ballot text?
  • Optional referendum - Legislature
Quorum requirements for a referendum to be valid
  • Optional referendum - turnout quorum
Requirements for a referendum to pass
  • Optional referendum - simple majority
Are referendum results binding?
  • Optional referendum - always

Question Value
Issues that can be proposed by citizens using the initiative process at the national level
  • Agenda initiatives - constitutional amendments
  • Agenda initiatives - legislative proposals
Issues excluded from being the subject of an initiative at the national level
  • None
Who may propose the registration of an initiative?
  • Agenda initiative - a number of individuals
  • Agenda initiative - registered committee
Materials to accompany an application for registration
  • Proposed title
  • General explanation of the purpose
  • Full proposed text
  • See sources for more details
Who determines the title of an initiative?
  • Agenda initiative - proponents of the initiative
What disqualifies a proposed title of an initiative?
  • Not specified by legislation
Who is responsible for checking the legality of initiatives?
  • Not specified by legislation
At which stage legality check is conducted?
  • Not specified by legislation
Who decides the final ballot text when the initiative is put to a vote?
  • Not applicable
When does voting take place once an initiative is qualified for ballot?
  • Not applicable

Question Value
Which individuals/positions may be subject to the recall?
    What are the grounds for recall?
      What restrictions are there in relation to the time period in which an individual or position can be recalled?
        When is the recall put to the vote?
          When does the election to replace an individual who has been recalled take place?
            Can an individual who is the subject of a recall stand on the ballot for his/her own replacement?

              Question Value
              How many signatures are required to start the formal decision making stage of a direct democracy mechanism?
              • Referendum - fixed number
              • Agenda Initiative - fixed number
              What is the deadline for collecting required number of signatures?
              • Referendum - fixed time period
              • Agenda Initiative - fixed time period
              Restrictions in relation to the individuals who can sign the proposal
              • Referendum - signatories must be registered
              • Agenda Initiative - signatories must be registered
              Where can proposals be signed?
              • At public offices
              • Electronically
              What information must signatories provide when signing the proposal?
              • Personal details
              Restrictions in relation to signature collection
              • Not specified by legislation
              What forms of checks are undertaken to verify signatures?
              • All signatures are checked
              Who checks the signatures?
              • Another government agency
              • Ministry of the Interior

              Disclaimer: Maps presented do not imply on the part of the Institute any judgement on the legal status of any territory or the endorsement of such boundaries, nor does the placement or size of any country or territory reflect the political view of International IDEA. Maps are used in order to add visual clarity to data.