Rwanda

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Question Value
1. Is there a ban on donations from foreign interests to political parties?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
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    "A political organization shall not be allowed to accept donations and bequests from foreigners, foreign business companies, industries and organisations involved in other activities or in which foreigners are shareholders."

    (Article 24 paragraph 2, Organic Law n° 10/2013 Governing Political Organizations and Politicians, 11 July 2013).

2. Is there a ban on donations from foreign interests to candidates?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
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3. Is there a ban on corporate donations to political parties?
  • CodeNo
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4. Is there a ban on corporate donations to candidates?
  • CodeNo
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5. Is there a ban on donations from Trade Unions to political parties?
  • CodeNo
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6. Is there a ban on donations from Trade Unions to candidates?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
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7. Is there a ban on anonymous donations to political parties?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    However, there is an indirect ban for donations greater than one million Rwandan francs (around USD 1,150). "When the donations and bequests received have the value of at least one million Rwandan francs (1,000,000), the political organization shall inform in writing the authority in charge of registration of political organizations within a period not exceeding thirty (30) days from the date of reception, indicating the donor, the type and value of donations, with a copy to the Office of the Ombudsman." 

    (Article 24 paragraph 1, Organic Law n° 10/2013 Governing Political Organizations and Politicians, 11 July 2013).

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8. Is there a ban on anonymous donations to candidates?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
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9. Is there a ban on donations from corporations with government contracts to political parties?
  • CodeNo
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10. Is there a ban on donations from corporations with government contracts to candidates?
  • CodeNo
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11. Is there a ban on donations from corporations with partial government ownership to political parties?
  • CodeNo
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12. Is there a ban on donations from corporations with partial government ownership to candidates?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
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13. Is there a ban on the use of state resources in favour or against a political party or candidate?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
  • Source

    "No Government assets shall be used in the activities or interest of a political organization unless the law so provides."

    (Article 28 paragraph 1, Organic Law n° 10/2013 Governing Political Organizations and Politicians, 11 July 2013).

    "During the electoral campaign, it shall be prohibited to influence or attempt to influence voter’s choice through the following:
    1° illegally use of State property wherever it is;"

    (Article 30, Electoral Law n° 27/2010, 19 June 2010, as completed and modified by Law no 37/2013, 16 June 2013).

14. Is there a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party during a non-election specific period?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
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15. If there is a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party during a non-election specific period, what is the limit?
  • CodeNot applicable
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16. Is there a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party during an election?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
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17. If there is a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party during an election, what is the limit?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment
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18. Is there a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a candidate?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
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19. If there is a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a candidate, what is the limit?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment
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20. Is there a limit on the amount a candidate can contribute to their own election campaign?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
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21. Is there a limit on in-kind donations to political parties?
  • CodeNo
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22. Is there a limit on in-kind donations to candidates?
  • CodeNo
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23. Is there a ban on political parties engaging in commercial activities?
  • CodeNo
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24. Is there a ban on political parties taking loans in relation to election campaigns?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
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25. Is there a ban on candidates taking loans in relation to election campaigns?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
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26. Is there a ban on donors to political parties/candidates participating in public tender/procurement processes?
  • CodeNo
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27. Are there provisions requiring donations to go through the banking system?
  • CodeNo
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Question Value
28. Are there provisions for direct public funding to political parties?
  • CodeYes, both regularly and in relation to campaigns
  • Comment
  • Source

    "However, during elections in which political organizations campaign for their candidates, the Government shall provide in its budget grants to political organizations and independent candidates for the campaign activities. The amount of money that shall be entitled to political organizations and independant candidates shall be equal. This money shall be given to political organizations or independent candidates that have scored at least five per cent (5%) of the votes of all the electors."

    (Article 28 paragraphs 2 and 3, Organic Law n° 10/2013 Governing Political Organizations and Politicians, 11 July 2013).

29. What are the eligibility criteria for political parties to receive public funding?
  • CodeRegistration as a political party
  • Comment
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    "Rwandan parties have three main sources of party finance: limited state support channelled through the Forum of Political Parties to all registered parties in equal parts, independent contributions from memberships, and income from party assets."

    EU (2008) Final Report on the Legislative Elections 15 – 18 September.
    EU Election Observation Mission Report, Rwanda 2008.

30. What is the allocation calculation for political parties to receive public funding?
  • CodeEqual
  • Comment
  • Source

    "Rwandan parties have three main sources of party finance: limited state support channelled through the Forum of Political Parties to all registered parties in equal parts, independent contributions from memberships, and income from party assets."

    EU (2008) Final Report on the Legislative Elections 15 – 18 September.
    EU Election Observation Mission Report, Rwanda 2008.

31. What are the provisions on 'ear marking' direct public funding to political parties (how it should be used)?
  • CodeCampaign spending
  • Comment
  • Source

    "However, during elections in which political organizations campaign for their candidates, the Government shall provide in its budget grants to political organizations and independent candidates for the campaign activities. The amount of money that shall be entitled to political organizations and independant candidates shall be equal. This money shall be given to political organizations or independent candidates that have scored at least five per cent (5%) of the votes of all the electors."

    (Article 28 paragraphs 2 and 3, Organic Law n° 10/2013 Governing Political Organizations and Politicians, 11 July 2013).

32. Are there provisions for free or subsidized access to media for political parties?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
  • Source

    "For State media, the National Electoral Commission shall ensure that equal access to State media is guaranteed to all independent candidates, political organizations and coalitions of political organizations in competition."

    Article 67 paragraph 2, Electoral Law n° 27/2010, 19 June 2010, as completed and modified by Law n° 49-2015, 2 December 2015.

33. What criteria determine allocation for free or subsidized access to media for political parties?
  • CodeEqual
  • Comment
  • Source

    "For State media, the National Electoral Commission shall ensure that equal access to State media is guaranteed to all independent candidates, political organizations and coalitions of political organizations in competition."

    Article 67 paragraph 2, Electoral Law n° 27/2010, 19 June 2010, as completed and modified by Law n° 49-2015, 2 December 2015.

34. Are there provisions for free or subsidized access to media for candidates?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
  • Source

    "For State media, the National Electoral Commission shall ensure that equal access to State media is guaranteed to all independent candidates, political organizations and coalitions of political organizations in competition."

    Article 67 paragraph 2, Electoral Law n° 27/2010, 19 June 2010, as completed and modified by Law n° 49-2015, 2 December 2015.

35. Are there provisions for any other form of indirect public funding?
  • CodeNo
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36. Is the provision of direct public funding to political parties tied to gender equality among candidates?
  • CodeNo
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37. Are there provisions for other financial advantages to encourage gender equality in political parties?
  • CodeNo
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Question Value
38. Is there a ban on vote buying?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
  • Source

    "During the electoral campaign, it shall be prohibited to influence or attempt to influence voter’s choice through the following:
    1° illegally use of State property wherever it is;
    2° any form of insulting or defamatory statement against another candidate;
    3° use of corruption ;
    4° any form of discrimination."

    (Article 30, Law n° 27/2010, 19 June 2010 as modified and completed by Article 10 of Law n° 37/2013, 16 June 2013).

39. Are there limits on the amount a political party can spend?
  • CodeNo
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40. If there are limits on the amount a political party can spend, what is the limit?
  • CodeNot applicable
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41. Are there limits on the amount a candidate can spend?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
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42. If there are limits on the amount a candidate can spend, what is the limit?
  • CodeNot applicable
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43. Are there limits on the amount that third parties can spend on election campaign activities?
  • CodeNo
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44. Are there limits on traditional media advertising spending in relation to election campaigns?
  • CodeNo
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45. Are there limits on online media advertising spending in relation to election campaigns?
  • CodeNo
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46. Do any other restrictions on online media advertisement (beyond limits) exist?
  • CodeNo
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Question Value
47. Do political parties have to report regularly on their finances?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
  • Source

    A political organization shall always keep its books of accounts and carry out an inventory of movable and immovable assets. A political organization shall submit, not later than the 30 September of the following fiscal year, to the authority in charge of the registration of political organizations its financial statements, with a copy to the Office of Ombudsman.

    (Article 26 paragraphs 1 and 2, Organic Law n° 10/2013 Governing Political Organizations and Politicians, 11 July 2013).

48. Do political parties have to report on their election campaign finances?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
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49. Do candidates have to report on their election campaign finances?
  • CodeNo
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50. Do third parties have to report on election campaign finances?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
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51. Is information in reports from political parties and/or candidates to be made public?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source

    "Under Rwanda's laws, there are no maximum limits placed on funds spent on the campaign nor are there requirements to make public information about sources of funding or donations."

    Commonwealth (2010), Rwanda Presidential Elections, 9 August 2010. Commonwealth Observer Group, p.17.

52. Must reports from political parties and/or candidates reveal the identity of donors?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    Yes, for donations above one million Rwandan francs. 

  • Source

    "A political organization may receive donations and bequests. When the donations and bequests received have the value of at least one million Rwandan francs (1,000,000), the political organization shall inform in writing the authority in charge of registration of political organizations within a period not exceeding thirty (30) days from the date of reception, indicating the donor, the type and value of donations, with a copy to the Office of the Ombudsman."

    (Article 24, Organic Law n° 10/2013 Governing Political Organizations and Politicians, 11 July 2013).

53. Must reports from political parties and/or candidates include information on itemized income?
  • CodeNo
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54. Must reports from political parties and/or candidates include information on itemized spending?
  • CodeNo
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55. Which institution(s) receives financial reports from political parties and/or candidates?
  • CodeSpecial agency for political finance
  • Comment

    The authority in charge of the registration of political organizations - the Rwanda Governance Board (RGB) - and the Ombudsman.

  • Source

    "A political organization shall submit, not later than the 30 September of the following fiscal year, to the authority in charge of the registration of political organizations its financial statements, with a copy to the Office of Ombudsman." 

    (Article 26 paragraph 2, Organic Law n° 10/2013 Governing Political Organizations and Politicians, 11 July 2013).

56. Which institution(s) is responsible for examining financial reports and/or investigating violations?
  • CodeOther
  • Comment
  • Source

    "Political organizations shall submit to the Office of Ombudsman their books of accounts not later than 30 September of each fiscal year. The Office of Ombudsman shall each year and whenever necessary verify the accounts of political organizations, on its initiative or upon request by the authority in charge of registration of political organizations. The Office of Ombudsman shall submit a copy of the control of accounts to the authority in charge of registration of political organizations and the Senate."

    (Article 27, Organic Law n° 10/2013 Governing Political Organizations and Politicians, 11 July 2013).

     

57. What power is granted to the institution(s) responsible for examining reports and/or investigating violations?
  • CodeImpose sanctions
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58. What sanctions are provided for political finance infractions?
  • CodeLoss of public funding | Deregistration of party | Suspension of political party | Suspension of public funding
  • Comment
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    "Any political organization that does not submit its financial statements to the Office of the Ombudsman, shall face the following sanctions: 1° formal warning and summons to submit in a time limit period its books of accounts, otherwise the State grants allocated to the political organization shall be suspended until the submission of the books of accounts; 2° suspension of activities for a period of one (1) year if after the formal warning, for a second time such a political organization does not respect the date of September 30 of the financial year to abide by the requirements; 3° dissolution where after the sanctions mentioned in items 1° and 2° of this Article the concerned political organization has, for the third time, not respected the date of September 30 of the financial year to abide by the requirements."

    (Article 46, Organic Law n° 10/2013 Governing Political Organizations and Politicians, 11 July 2013).

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