Russian Federation

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Question Value
Legal provisions for mandatory referendums at national level
  • No
Legal provisions for optional referendums at national level
  • Yes
Legal provisions for citizens' initiatives at national level
  • Yes
Legal provisions for agenda initiatives at national level
  • No
Legal provisions for recall at national level
  • No
Legal provisions for direct democracy at the regional level
  • Optional referendum
  • Citizens' initiative
Legal provisions for direct democracy at the local level
  • Optional referendum
  • Citizens' initiative
Legal basis for direct democracy at the national level
  • Constitutional
  • Specific laws/legislation
Legal basis for administrative requirements at the national level
  • Specific laws/legislation
Who administers direct democracy mechanisms at the national level?
  • Independent electoral commission
First referendum/initiative held
  • 1993
Has there been a national referendum since 1980?
  • Yes

Question Value
Issues in relation to which referendums are mandatory at the national level
  • None
Issues in relation to which referendums are optional at the national level
  • Any issue of national importance, except those excluded
Issues excluded from being the subject of referendums at the national level
  • Devolution
  • Civil service
  • Taxes and public expenditure commitments
  • Issues related to territorial integrity
  • Amnesty and pardon
  • See also sources
Issues of sub-national referendums regulated at the national level
  • Creation/merger/abolition of sub-national territories
Who can initiate an optional referendum at the national level?
  • President
  • Registered electors
  • Constitutional Assembly (in the cases of amendments)
Who drafts the referendum question?
  • Optional referendum - Independent electoral commission
Who decides on the final form of the ballot text?
  • Optional referendum - Independent electoral commission
Quorum requirements for a referendum to be valid
  • Optional referendum - turnout quorum
Requirements for a referendum to pass
  • Optional referendum - simple majority
Are referendum results binding?
  • Optional referendum - always

Question Value
Issues that can be proposed by citizens using the initiative process at the national level
  • Citizens' initiatives - legislative proposals
  • Citizens' initiatives - other issues
Issues excluded from being the subject of an initiative at the national level
  • Devolution
  • Civil service
  • Taxes and public expenditure commitments
  • Issues related to territorial integrity
  • Amnesty and pardon
  • See also sources
Who may propose the registration of an initiative?
  • Citizens' initiative - registered committee
Materials to accompany an application for registration
  • Proposed title
  • See also comments
Who determines the title of an initiative?
  • Citizens' initiative - proponents of the initiative
What disqualifies a proposed title of an initiative?
  • See comments
Who is responsible for checking the legality of initiatives?
  • Independent electoral commission
At which stage legality check is conducted?
  • After its submission but before the vote on the initiative
Who decides the final ballot text when the initiative is put to a vote?
  • Agency which administers direct democracy mechanisms
When does voting take place once an initiative is qualified for ballot?
  • Within a certain time limit

Question Value
Which individuals/positions may be subject to the recall?
    What are the grounds for recall?
      What restrictions are there in relation to the time period in which an individual or position can be recalled?
        When is the recall put to the vote?
          When does the election to replace an individual who has been recalled take place?
            Can an individual who is the subject of a recall stand on the ballot for his/her own replacement?

              Question Value
              How many signatures are required to start the formal decision making stage of a direct democracy mechanism?
              • Referendum - fixed number
              • Citizens' Initiative - fixed number
              What is the deadline for collecting required number of signatures?
              • Referendum - fixed time period
              • Citizens' Initiative - fixed time period
              Restrictions in relation to the individuals who can sign the proposal
              • Referendum - signatories must be registered electors in a specified electoral district
              • Citizens' Initiative - signatories must be registered electors in a specified electoral district
              Where can proposals be signed?
              • Anywhere
              What information must signatories provide when signing the proposal?
              • Identity or voting card number
              Restrictions in relation to signature collection
              • Requirement for signature collectors to be registered electors
              What forms of checks are undertaken to verify signatures?
              • Sample of signatures are checked
              Who checks the signatures?
              • Agency responsible for the administration of direct democracy mechanisms