Panama

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Question Value
1. Is there a ban on donations from foreign interests to political parties?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    Ban does not apply to donations from international party organizations or foreign foundations, as long as they are not for campaign expenses purposes.

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2. Is there a ban on donations from foreign interests to candidates?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
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3. Is there a ban on corporate donations to political parties?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    No bans on corporate donations to political parties in law.

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4. Is there a ban on corporate donations to candidates?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
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5. Is there a ban on donations from Trade Unions to political parties?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
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6. Is there a ban on donations from Trade Unions to candidates?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
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7. Is there a ban on anonymous donations to political parties?
  • CodeYes
  • CommentBan does not apply to anonymous donations in public rallies that are according to regulations established by the EMB.
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8. Is there a ban on anonymous donations to candidates?
  • CodeYes
  • CommentCandidates may raise anonymous donations in public rallies, but according to regulations established by the EMB.
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9. Is there a ban on donations from corporations with government contracts to political parties?
10. Is there a ban on donations from corporations with government contracts to candidates?
11. Is there a ban on donations from corporations with partial government ownership to political parties?
12. Is there a ban on donations from corporations with partial government ownership to candidates?
13. Is there a ban on the use of state resources in favour or against a political party or candidate?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    Public servants are not allowed to engage in partisanship activities while on duty, or to make use of their authority of influence to favor any candidate or political party.

     

    EMB officers are banned from any type of political activity, except casting their vote.

     

    It is prohibited to make use of State resource in favor or against any candidate or political party.
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14. Is there a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party during a non-election specific period?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
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15. If there is a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party during a non-election specific period, what is the limit?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment
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16. Is there a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party during an election?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
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17. If there is a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party during an election, what is the limit?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment
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18. Is there a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a candidate?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
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19. If there is a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a candidate, what is the limit?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment
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20. Is there a limit on the amount a candidate can contribute to their own election campaign?
21. Is there a limit on in-kind donations to political parties?
22. Is there a limit on in-kind donations to candidates?
23. Is there a ban on political parties engaging in commercial activities?
24. Is there a ban on political parties taking loans in relation to election campaigns?
25. Is there a ban on candidates taking loans in relation to election campaigns?
26. Is there a ban on donors to political parties/candidates participating in public tender/procurement processes?
27. Are there provisions requiring donations to go through the banking system?

Question Value
28. Are there provisions for direct public funding to political parties?
  • CodeYes, both regularly and in relation to campaigns
  • CommentPublic funding is approved every five years and distributed throughout that period to support both, ordinary activities and campaign expenses.
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29. What are the eligibility criteria for political parties to receive public funding?
  • CodeRepresentation in elected body | Share of votes in next election | Participation in election | Registration as a political party
  • CommentRegistered political parties shall simply formally inform the EMB, no later than 30 days after the beginning of the electoral period, their will to participate in the upcoming elections and to benefit from public funding.
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30. What is the allocation calculation for political parties to receive public funding?
  • CodeEqual | Proportional to votes received
  • Comment

    All funding devoted to campaign expenses (40% of the total) is allocated on an equal basis among all political parties.

    ?

    One third of the remaining public funding (all devoted to ordinary activities and distributed on a yearly basis), is also distributed on an equal basis, and two thirds according to their share of votes in the previous general elections.
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31. What are the provisions on 'ear marking' direct public funding to political parties (how it should be used)?
  • CodeCampaign spending | Ongoing party activities | civic and political education and women training
  • Comment

    10% of the overall public funding is devoted to the proceedings for nomination of candidates.

    ?

    30% is devoted to electoral advertising expenses.

    ?

    The remaining 60% goes to ongoing party activities, but at least 25% of this should be invested in civic-and political education activities, and at least 10% of the latter solely to women training.

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32. Are there provisions for free or subsidized access to media for political parties?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
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33. What criteria determine allocation for free or subsidized access to media for political parties?
  • CodeEqual
  • Comment
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34. Are there provisions for free or subsidized access to media for candidates?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
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35. Are there provisions for any other form of indirect public funding?
  • CodeYes
  • CommentParties are exempted of taxes for the importation of propaganda materials; hardware and office equipment. Parties are entitled to free postage, and use of telegraphic facilities and fundraising activities conducted by political parties are tax exempted. Contributions to political parties or candidates are tax exempted for up to 10,000 balboas [I$ 16,000] annually.
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36. Is the provision of direct public funding to political parties tied to gender equality among candidates?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
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37. Are there provisions for other financial advantages to encourage gender equality in political parties?
  • CodeYes, funds earmarked for gender activities
  • CommentAt least 10% of the public funding devoted to civic and political education activities shall be channeled to solely support women training activities
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Question Value
38. Is there a ban on vote buying?
  • CodeYes
  • CommentVote buying carries imprisonment from six months to three years and a ban on exerting any public duty for up to three years.
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39. Are there limits on the amount a political party can spend?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
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40. If there are limits on the amount a political party can spend, what is the limit?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment
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41. Are there limits on the amount a candidate can spend?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
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42. If there are limits on the amount a candidate can spend, what is the limit?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment
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43. Are there limits on the amount that third parties can spend on election campaign activities?
44. Are there limits on traditional media advertising spending in relation to election campaigns?
45. Are there limits on online media advertising spending in relation to election campaigns?
46. Do any other restrictions on online media advertisement (beyond limits) exist?

Question Value
47. Do political parties have to report regularly on their finances?
  • CodeYes
  • CommentReport of contributions and expenditures.
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48. Do political parties have to report on their election campaign finances?
  • CodeYes
  • CommentReport of contributions received to cover ordinary and campaign expenses.
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49. Do candidates have to report on their election campaign finances?
  • CodeYes
  • CommentCandidates are obliged by law to register and keep a record of all private contributions received to cover their campaign expenses. They mst also submit financial reports.
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50. Do third parties have to report on election campaign finances?
51. Is information in reports from political parties and/or candidates to be made public?
  • CodeNo
  • CommentBy law, information provided by parties and candidates about sources of private funding has to be handled confidentially by the EMB, and solely used to determine if there have been breaches to criminal laws.
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52. Must reports from political parties and/or candidates reveal the identity of donors?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
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53. Must reports from political parties and/or candidates include information on itemized income?
54. Must reports from political parties and/or candidates include information on itemized spending?
55. Which institution(s) receives financial reports from political parties and/or candidates?
  • CodeEMB
  • CommentParties and candidates are only obliged by law to keep records of the private contributions that they receive, and also to submit financial reports on a regular basis.
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56. Which institution(s) is responsible for examining financial reports and/or investigating violations?
  • CodeEMB
  • Comment
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57. What power is granted to the institution(s) responsible for examining reports and/or investigating violations?
58. What sanctions are provided for political finance infractions?
  • CodeFines | Loss of public funding
  • CommentFines and the withholding of public funding can be imposed for violations such as receiving donations from banned sources.
  • Source

Disclaimer: Maps presented do not imply on the part of the Institute any judgement on the legal status of any territory or the endorsement of such boundaries, nor does the placement or size of any country or territory reflect the political view of International IDEA. Maps are used in order to add visual clarity to data.