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Question Value
1. Is there a ban on donations from foreign interests to political parties?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    Absent from legal framework

  • Source
2. Is there a ban on donations from foreign interests to candidates?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source

    Absent from legal framework

3. Is there a ban on corporate donations to political parties?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    All donations from legal entities are banned.

  • Source

    Chapter III, Article 8, Loi portant Réglementation du Financement des Partis Politiques, 2007, amended in 2011

    Art. 8. Only the natural persons are authorized to make donations to political parties and to their members. The  donations  coming  from  a  legal  entity  are  not  allowed.  The  same  is  applicable  to donations made by associations, groups or bodies that do not have a legal personality. 

4. Is there a ban on corporate donations to candidates?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    All donations from legal entities are banned.

  • Source
5. Is there a ban on donations from Trade Unions to political parties?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    All donations from legal entities are banned.

  • Source
6. Is there a ban on donations from Trade Unions to candidates?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    All donations from legal entities are banned.

  • Source
7. Is there a ban on anonymous donations to political parties?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    Anonymous donations are forbidden. 

  • Source

    Chapter III, Article 8, Loi portant Réglementation du Financement des Partis Politiques, 2007, amended in 2011

    Art. 8. Only the natural persons are authorized to make donations to political parties and to their members. We understand a donation to a political party in the sense of this law to be any voluntary act to grant a party an exact economic advantage and computable in cash.

    The donations coming from a legal entity are not allowed. The same is applicable to donations made by associations, groups or bodies that do not have a legal personality. Anonymous donations are forbidden.

8. Is there a ban on anonymous donations to candidates?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
  • Source

    Chapter III, Article 8, Loi portant Réglementation du Financement des Partis Politiques, 2007, amended in 2011

    Art. 8. Only the natural persons are authorized to make donations to political parties and to their members. We understand a donation to a political party in the sense of this law to be any voluntary act to grant a party an exact economic advantage and computable in cash.

    The donations coming from a legal entity are not allowed. The same is applicable to donations made by associations, groups or bodies that do not have a legal personality. Anonymous donations are forbidden.

9. Is there a ban on donations from corporations with government contracts to political parties?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    The donations coming from a legal entity are not allowed.

  • Source

    Chapter III, Article 8, Loi portant Réglementation du Financement des Partis Politiques, 2007, amended in 2011

    Art. 8. Only the natural persons are authorized to make donations to political parties and to their members. We understand a donation to a political party in the sense of this law to be any voluntary act to grant a party an exact economic advantage and computable in cash.

    The donations coming from a legal entity are not allowed. The same is applicable to donations made by associations, groups or bodies that do not have a legal personality. Anonymous donations are forbidden.

10. Is there a ban on donations from corporations with government contracts to candidates?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    The donations coming from a legal entity are not allowed.

  • Source

    Chapter III, Article 8, Loi portant Réglementation du Financement des Partis Politiques, 2007, amended in 2011

    Art. 8. Only the natural persons are authorized to make donations to political parties and to their members. We understand a donation to a political party in the sense of this law to be any voluntary act to grant a party an exact economic advantage and computable in cash.

    The donations coming from a legal entity are not allowed. The same is applicable to donations made by associations, groups or bodies that do not have a legal personality. Anonymous donations are forbidden.

11. Is there a ban on donations from corporations with partial government ownership to political parties?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    The donations coming from a legal entity are not allowed.

  • Source

    Chapter III, Article 8, Loi portant Réglementation du Financement des Partis Politiques, 2007, amended in 2011

    Art. 8. Only the natural persons are authorized to make donations to political parties and to their members. We understand a donation to a political party in the sense of this law to be any voluntary act to grant a party an exact economic advantage and computable in cash.

    The donations coming from a legal entity are not allowed. The same is applicable to donations made by associations, groups or bodies that do not have a legal personality. Anonymous donations are forbidden.

12. Is there a ban on donations from corporations with partial government ownership to candidates?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    The donations coming from a legal entity are not allowed.

  • Source

    Chapter III, Article 8, Loi portant Réglementation du Financement des Partis Politiques, 2007, amended in 2011

    Art. 8. Only the natural persons are authorized to make donations to political parties and to their members. We understand a donation to a political party in the sense of this law to be any voluntary act to grant a party an exact economic advantage and computable in cash.

    The donations coming from a legal entity are not allowed. The same is applicable to donations made by associations, groups or bodies that do not have a legal personality. Anonymous donations are forbidden.

13. Is there a ban on the use of state resources in favour or against a political party or candidate?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
14. Is there a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party during a non-election specific period?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    Absent from legal framework

  • Source
15. If there is a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party during a non-election specific period, what is the limit?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment

    Absent from legal framework

  • Source
16. Is there a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party during an election?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    Absent from legal framework.

  • Source
17. If there is a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party during an election, what is the limit?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment

    Absent from legal framework.

  • Source
18. Is there a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a candidate?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    Absent from legal framework.

  • Source
19. If there is a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a candidate, what is the limit?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment

    Absent from legal framework.

  • Source
20. Is there a limit on the amount a candidate can contribute to their own election campaign?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    Absent from legal framework

  • Source
21. Is there a limit on in-kind donations to political parties?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source

    Chapter III, Article 9, Loi portant Réglementation du Financement des Partis Politiques, 2007, amended in 2011

    "Political parties shall keep a record of donors indicating the annual donations in cash and the evaluation of gifts in kind exceeding euro 250.
    The statement of yearly donations in cash and in kind exceeding euro 250 shall be presented annually, jointly with the accounts and balances, to the Prime Minister, the Minister of State and a copy to the President of the Chamber of Deputies, according to the provisions of article 6."

22. Is there a limit on in-kind donations to candidates?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source

    Chapter III, Article 9, Loi portant Réglementation du Financement des Partis Politiques, 2007, amended in 2011

    "Political parties shall keep a record of donors indicating the annual donations in cash and the evaluation of gifts in kind exceeding euro 250.
    The statement of yearly donations in cash and in kind exceeding euro 250 shall be presented annually, jointly with the accounts and balances, to the Prime Minister, the Minister of State and a copy to the President of the Chamber of Deputies, according to the provisions of article 6."

23. Is there a ban on political parties engaging in commercial activities?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    No specific mention in  Loi portant Réglementation du Financement des Partis Politiques, 2007, amended in 2011

  • Source
24. Is there a ban on political parties taking loans in relation to election campaigns?
  • CodeNo data
  • Comment

    No specific mention in  Loi portant Réglementation du Financement des Partis Politiques, 2007, amended in 2011

  • Source
25. Is there a ban on candidates taking loans in relation to election campaigns?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    No specific mention in  Loi portant Réglementation du Financement des Partis Politiques, 2007, amended in 2011

  • Source
26. Is there a ban on donors to political parties/candidates participating in public tender/procurement processes?
  • CodeYes
  • CommentAll donations from legal entities are banned.
  • Source
27. Are there provisions requiring donations to go through the banking system?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source

Question Value
28. Are there provisions for direct public funding to political parties?
  • CodeYes, both regularly and in relation to campaigns
  • Comment

    Annual contributions from state budget consisting of a lump sum and in relation to votes received.

  • Source

    Chapter II, Article 2, Loi portant Réglementation du Financement des Partis Politiques,2007, amended 2011

    Art. 2. The political parties that
    - presented a full list in the four constituencies during the legislative elections and a full
    list in the unique national constituency during European elections and
    - obtained at least two percent from the total votes both in the four constituencies for
    national elections as a national average and in the unique national constituency for
    European elections
    are entitled, apart from the contribution that they have been allocated in enforcing
    Chapter IX of the law amended on February 18, 2003, to an annual contribution from the
    state budget, determined as follows:
    1. lump sum of 100,000 Euros ;
    2. an additional amount of 11,500 Euros for each percentage point from the additional
    votes received during the national elections ;
    3. an additional amount of 11,500 Euros for each percentage point from the additional
    votes received during the European elections.
    In granting the additional amount, each percentage point from the additional votes
    received shall be taken into account until the second position behind the comma.
    The contribution, determined as per the previous paragraphs, cannot exceed 75 percent
    of the global revenue of the central structure of a political party. It is for the respective
    political party to demonstrate the burden of proof.
    If a political party no longer meets the terms stipulated in paragraph 1, it shall lose the
    benefit of public financing starting with the subsequent financial year.

29. What are the eligibility criteria for political parties to receive public funding?
  • CodeRepresentation in elected body | Share of votes in previous election
  • Comment

    Parties must present a full list of candidates and gain at least 2% of the vote.

  • Source

    Chapter II, Article 2, Loi portant Réglementation du Financement des Partis Politiques,2007, amended 2011

    The political parties that presented a full list in the four constituencies during the legislative elections and a full list in the unique national constituency during European elections and obtained at least two percent from the total votes both in the four constituencies for national  elections  as  a  national  average  and  in  the  unique  national  constituency  for European elections are  entitled,  apart  from  the  contribution  that  they  have  been  allocated  in  enforcing Chapter IX of the law amended on February 18, 2003, amended 2011, to an annual contribution from the state budget

30. What is the allocation calculation for political parties to receive public funding?
  • CodeEqual | Proportional to votes received
  • Comment

    Annual contributions from state budget consisting of a lump sum and in relation to votes received.

  • Source

    Chapter II, Article 2 and Article 3 , Loi portant Réglementation du Financement des Partis Politiques, 2007, amended 2011

    Art. 2. The political parties that
    - presented a full list in the four constituencies during the legislative elections and a full list in the unique national constituency during European elections and
    - obtained at least two percent from the total votes both in the four constituencies for national elections as a national average and in the unique national constituency for European elections are entitled, apart from the contribution that they have been allocated in enforcing Chapter IX of the law amended on February 18, 2003, to an annual contribution from the state budget, determined as follows:
    1. lump sum of 100,000 Euros ;
    2. an additional amount of 11,500 Euros for each percentage point from the additional
    votes received during the national elections ;
    3. an additional amount of 11,500 Euros for each percentage point from the additional
    votes received during the European elections.
    In granting the additional amount, each percentage point from the additional votes received shall be taken into account until the second position behind the comma. The contribution, determined as per the previous paragraphs, cannot exceed 75 percent of the global revenue of the central structure of a political party. It is for the respective political party to demonstrate the burden of proof. If a political party no longer meets the terms stipulated in paragraph 1, it shall lose the
    benefit of public financing starting with the subsequent financial year.

    Art. 3. The official results of the elections proclaimed by the president of the main offices or of the main office of the constituency represent the basis for computing the contribution. [...]

     

31. What are the provisions on 'ear marking' direct public funding to political parties (how it should be used)?
  • CodeCampaign spending | Ongoing party activities
  • Comment

    BLANK

  • Source

    Chapter II, Article 4  and Chapter IV, Article 13, Loi portant Réglementation du Financement des Partis Politiques, 2007, amended 2011

    Art.  4.  The  funds  of  the  political  parties  coming  from  public  financing  as  per  the provisions  of  this  law  may  only  be  affected  by  expenditures  such  as  the  ones  defined  in article  13,  paragraph  2  in  this  law  and  directly  related  to  the  objectives  defined  in  the statutes. 

    Art 13 
    The expenditures account includes: 
    1.  operating expenses; 
    2.  expenses with training, studying and research ; 
    3.  expenses regarding events and publications ; 
    4.  electoral expenses; 
    5.  contributions to the international organizations and associations ; 
    6.  amounts granted to other members of the party ; 
    7.  expenses regarding the movable and immovable assets ; 
    8.  various expenses. 

32. Are there provisions for free or subsidized access to media for political parties?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    No specific mention in Loi portant Réglementation du Financement des Partis Politiques,2007, amended 2011

  • Source
33. What criteria determine allocation for free or subsidized access to media for political parties?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment

    No specific mention in Loi portant Réglementation du Financement des Partis Politiques,2007, amended 2011

  • Source
34. Are there provisions for free or subsidized access to media for candidates?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
35. Are there provisions for any other form of indirect public funding?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
  • Source

    Chapter IX, Article 92, Loi Electoral, 2003, amended in 2015

    Art. 92.- Les frais d’affranchissement postaux d’une seule communication adressée sous forme d’imprimé aux électeurs de leur circonscription électorale avant chaque élection au Parlement européen et à la Chambre des députés sont remboursés par l’Etat à chaque parti politique ou groupement de candidats sur présentation des pièces justificatives, pour autant qu’il a recueilli au moins cinq pour cent des suffrages valables émis dans la circonscription
    concernée.
    Les modalités et les caractéristiques, et notamment le format et l’ampleur des communications, ainsi que les conditions de leur envoi par la poste sont fixés d’après les prescriptions de l’Entreprise des Postes et Télécommunications.

36. Is the provision of direct public funding to political parties tied to gender equality among candidates?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
37. Are there provisions for other financial advantages to encourage gender equality in political parties?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source

Question Value
38. Is there a ban on vote buying?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    Fine from Eur 251 to Eur 2000 and improsonment from 8 hours to one month

  • Source

    Article 97, Loi Electoral, 2003, amended 2015

    Art. 97.- Est puni d’une amende de 251 à 2.000 euros et d’un emprisonnement de huit jours à un mois ou de l’une de ces peines seulement, quiconque, pour déterminer un électeur à s’abstenir de voter ou à remettre un bulletin de vote nul, ou pour influencer son vote ou pour l’empêcher ou lui défendre de se porter candidat, a usé à son égard de voies de fait, de violences ou de menaces, ou lui a fait craindre de perdre son emploi ou d’exposer à un dommage sa
    personne, sa famille ou sa fortune.

39. Are there limits on the amount a political party can spend?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
40. If there are limits on the amount a political party can spend, what is the limit?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment
  • Source
41. Are there limits on the amount a candidate can spend?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
42. If there are limits on the amount a candidate can spend, what is the limit?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment
  • Source
43. Are there limits on the amount that third parties can spend on election campaign activities?
  • CodeNo data
  • Comment
  • Source
44. Are there limits on traditional media advertising spending in relation to election campaigns?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
45. Are there limits on online media advertising spending in relation to election campaigns?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
46. Do any other restrictions on online media advertisement (beyond limits) exist?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source

Question Value
47. Do political parties have to report regularly on their finances?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    BLANK

  • Source

    Chapter IV, Article 12, Loi portant Réglementation du Financement des Partis Politiques, 2007, amended 2011

    Art. 12. The central structure of a political party is obliged to approve every year, before July 1, its accounts for the previous accounting year. The accounting year starts on January 1 and ends on December 31 of every year. The accounts approved by the political party bear all revenues and expenditures as well as its assets and liabilities’ status. 

48. Do political parties have to report on their election campaign finances?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    BLANK

  • Source

    Chapter IV, Article 12 & Article 13 Loi portant Réglementation du Financement des Partis Politiques, 2007, amended 2011

    Art. 12. The central structure of a political party is obliged to approve every year, before July 1, its accounts for the previous accounting year. The accounting year starts on January 1 and ends on December 31 of every year. The accounts approved by the political party bear all revenues and expenditures as well as its assets and liabilities’ status. 

    Art. 13. The expenditures account includes: 
    4.  electoral expenses; 

49. Do candidates have to report on their election campaign finances?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    BLANK

  • Source

    Chapter IV, Article 11, Loi portant Réglementation du Financement des Partis Politiques, 2007, amended 2011

    "Notwithstanding the legal autonomy, every member of a party without exception must declare to the competent national body the donations that it received."

50. Do third parties have to report on election campaign finances?
  • CodeThird parties are banned from participating in campaigns
  • Comment
  • Source
51. Is information in reports from political parties and/or candidates to be made public?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    BLANK

  • Source

     Chapter IV, Article 16, Loi portant Réglementation du Financement des Partis Politiques, 2007, amended 2011

    "This data can be consulted freely by any interested person in the Donors of the Chamber of Deputies that publishes the data on its webpage."

52. Must reports from political parties and/or candidates reveal the identity of donors?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    BLANK

  • Source

    Chapter IV, Article 8 & Article 12, Loi portant Réglementation du Financement des Partis Politiques, 2007, amended 2011

    Art 8. Anonymous donations are forbidden. 

    Art 12. The accounts, as well as the list of donors, are sent to the Court of Accounts to be checked and audited, within the month that follows their approval by the competent authority of the political party.

53. Must reports from political parties and/or candidates include information on itemized income?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    BLANK

  • Source

    Chapter IV, Article 13, Loi portant Réglementation du Financement des Partis Politiques, 2007, amended 2011

    Art. 13. The revenues account includes :
    1. the contributions of the members;
    2. the contributions of the elected representatives;
    3. the donations or legacies ;
    4. the revenues from movable or immovable assets ;
    5. the revenues from events and publications ;
    6. the various services with a pecuniary value or that could be expressed as bearing pecuniary value;

    7. various revenues;
    8. contributions paid by members of the party ;
    9. public donations.
    [...]
    A grand duchy regulation may set a uniform accounting plan, stating the form of the
    accounts and balances and determining the bookkeeping methods.

54. Must reports from political parties and/or candidates include information on itemized spending?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    BLANK

  • Source

    Chapter IV, Article 13, Loi portant Réglementation du Financement des Partis Politiques, 2007, amended 2011

    Art.13. [...] The expenditures account includes:
    1. operating expenses;
    2. expenses with training, studying and research ;
    3. expenses regarding events and publications ;
    4. electoral expenses;
    5. contributions to the international organizations and associations ;
    6. amounts granted to other members of the party ;
    7. expenses regarding the movable and immovable assets ;
    8. various expenses.

    A grand duchy regulation may set a uniform accounting plan, stating the form of the
    accounts and balances and determining the bookkeeping methods.

55. Which institution(s) receives financial reports from political parties and/or candidates?
  • CodeCourt | Other
  • Comment

    Court of Accounts, Prime Minister, Minister of State and President of the Chamber of Deputies.

  • Source

    Chapter IV, Article 14, Loi portant Réglementation du Financement des Partis Politiques, 2007, amended 2011

    Art. 14. The accounts and balances approved as per articles 11, 12 and 13 are submitted on the month that follows their approval by the competent authority of the political party to the Prime Minister, Minister of State and to the President of the Chamber of Deputies that sends them along with the list of donors to the Court of Accounts to be verified and audited.

56. Which institution(s) is responsible for examining financial reports and/or investigating violations?
  • CodeCourt
  • Comment

    Court of Accounts

  • Source

    Chapter IV, Article 14, Loi portant Réglementation du Financement des Partis Politiques, 2007, amended 2011

    Court of Accounts -  The accounts and balances approved as per articles 11, 12 and 13 are submitted on the month that follows their approval by the competent authority of the political party to the Prime Minister, Minister of State and to the President of the Chamber of Deputies that sends them along with the list of donors to the Court of Accounts to be verified and audited.

57. What power is granted to the institution(s) responsible for examining reports and/or investigating violations?
  • CodeRequest additional information from potential violator
  • Comment
  • Source

    Chapter IV, Article 15, Loi portant Réglementation du Financement des Partis Politiques, 2007, amended 2011

    Art. 15. The political parties are obliged to communicate to the Court of Accounts all documents or any information that the latter deems necessary to carry out its mission.

58. What sanctions are provided for political finance infractions?
  • CodeFines | Prison | Forfeiture | Suspension of public funding
  • Comment

    Depending on the type of infraction sanctions - besides forfeiture and suspension of public funding -  can range from Imprisonment from four months to five years and a fine of 251 euros to 30,000 euros or imprisonment from eight days to two years and a fine of 500 euros to 5,000 euros.

  • Source

    Suspension of public funding: 
    Chapter II, Article 7, Loi portant Réglementation du Financement des Partis Politiques, 2007, amended 2011)

    Art. 7.  Non-compliance with the obligations stipulated in the previous article entails the suspension  of  the  payments  until  the  remedy  of  the  situation.  This  can  also  include  the non-compliance of article 15.  

    Forfeiture and fines: 
    Chapter II, Article 7, Loi portant Réglementation du Financement des Partis Politiques, 2007, amended 2011

    "Financial  aids  improperly  used  shall  be  returned  to  the  State  Treasury.  In  case  of convictions  according  to  article  17,  the  concerned  political  party  must  pay  the  State Treasury the triple value of the amounts illegally used. "

    Fines and imprisonment: 

    Chapter II, Article 17, Loi portant Réglementation du Financement des Partis Politiques, 2007, amended 2011

    Art.  17. False statements related to article 6 lines  2 and  3 as  well  as the breach of  the  provisions  of  articles  8  and  9  line  3  shall  be  sanctioned  according  to  the  provisions  of articles 496-1, 496-2 and 496-3 of the Criminal Code. Article 23 lines (2) and (3) of the Criminal procedure code shall be applied. 

    ALSO:

    rticles 496-1, 496-2 and 496-3 of the Criminal Code, 1879, amended 2016

    Art. 496. (L. 18 juillet 2014) Quiconque, dans le but de s’approprier une chose appartenant à autrui, se sera fait remettre ou délivrer ou aura tenté de se faire remettre ou délivrer des fonds, meubles, obligations, quittances, décharges, clefs électroniques, soit en faisant usage de faux noms ou de fausses qualités, soit en employant des manoeuvres frauduleuses pour persuader l’existence de fausses entreprises, d’un pouvoir ou d’un crédit imaginaire, pour faire naître l’espérance ou la crainte d’un succès, d’un accident ou de tout autre événement chimérique, ou pour abuser autrement de la confiance ou de la crédulité, sera puni d’un emprisonnement de quatre mois à cinq ans et d’une amende de 251 euros à 30.000 euros.
    Le coupable pourra de plus être condamné à l'interdiction, conformément à l'article 24.
    Art. 496-1. (L. 15 juillet 1993) Est puni des peines prévues à l’article 496, celui qui sciemment fait une déclaration fausse ou incomplète en vue d’obtenir ou de conserver une subvention, indemnité ou autre allocation qui est, en tout ou en partie, à charge de l’Etat, d’une autre personne morale de droit public ou d’une institution internationale.
    Art. 496-2. (L. 15 juillet 1993) Est puni des peines prévues à l’article 496, celui qui suite à une déclaration telle que visée à l’article précédent, reçoit une subvention, indemnité ou autre allocation à laquelle il n’a pas droit ou à laquelle il n’a droit que partiellement.
    (L. 30 mars 2001) Est puni des mêmes peines celui qui aura sciemment employé une subvention, indemnité ou allocation telle que visée à l’article précédent, à d’autres fins que celles pour lesquelles elle a été initialement accordée.
    Art. 496-3. (L. 30 mars 2001) Est puni des peines prévues à l’article 508, celui qui accepte ou conserve une subvention, indemnité ou autre allocation, ou partie d’une subvention, indemnité ou autre allocation, sachant qu’il n’y a pas droit.

    Art. 508. Seront punis d'un emprisonnement de huit jours à deux ans et d'une amende de 500 euros à 5.000 euros:
    Ceux qui, ayant trouvé une chose mobilière appartenant à autrui ou en ayant obtenu par hasard la possession, l'auront frauduleusement celée ou livrée à des tiers;
    Ceux qui, ayant découvert un trésor, se le seront approprié au préjudice des personnes auxquelles la loi en attribue une partie.

     

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