Japan

Change country

Question Value
1. Is there a ban on donations from foreign interests to political parties?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
  • Source
2. Is there a ban on donations from foreign interests to candidates?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
  • Source
3. Is there a ban on corporate donations to political parties?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
4. Is there a ban on corporate donations to candidates?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    Ban does not apply to fundraisers.

  • Source
5. Is there a ban on donations from Trade Unions to political parties?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
6. Is there a ban on donations from Trade Unions to candidates?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
  • Source
7. Is there a ban on anonymous donations to political parties?
  • CodeNo, but specific limit
  • CommentBan does not apply to collections in the streets or in a meetings if the amount of donation does not exceed 1,000 yen [I$ 9].
  • Source
8. Is there a ban on anonymous donations to candidates?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
  • Source
9. Is there a ban on donations from corporations with government contracts to political parties?
10. Is there a ban on donations from corporations with government contracts to candidates?
11. Is there a ban on donations from corporations with partial government ownership to political parties?
12. Is there a ban on donations from corporations with partial government ownership to candidates?
13. Is there a ban on donations from any other source?
14. Are there bans on state resources being used in favour or against a political party or candidate?
  • CodeYes
  • CommentPublic media is required to be neutral in its reporting and public officials may not favour any groups.
  • Source
15. Is there a ban on state resources being given to or received by political parties or candidates (excluding regulated public funding)?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
  • Source
16. Is there a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party over a time period (not election specific)?
  • CodeYes, for both natural and legal persons
  • Comment
  • Source

    Chapter 20, Question 20b (page 35): "Individual donation to the political parties and political organizations are restricted to 20 million yen (US$206,424) annually." Chapter 20, Question 20c (page 35): "Political donations by corporations, labor unions and the other organizations are restricted to 7.5 million yen to 30 million yen (US$77,421 to US$309,666), with specific ceilings for organizations that are determined by the amount of capital, number of union members and other factors." (Source: Global Integrity Report (2008) Scorecard: Japan 2008. Available at http://report.globalintegrity.org/Japan/2008/scorecard)

    Art 21.3, An individual shall not contribute more than 20 million yen per year to political parties and political fund organizations. And as for corporations and trade unions, the upper limit of the total contribution to political parties and political fund organizations ranges from 7.5 million to 100 million yen, which is determined based on the capital of the company or the number of members of the trade union. [description, not direct quote] (Source: Political Funds Control Act, 1948 (as amended by Act No. 135 of 2007))

17. If there is a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party over a time period (not election specific), what is the limit?
  • Code Annual limit is 20 million yen [I$ 178,000] (individuals); between 7,5 million yen to 100 million yen [I$ 67,000 to I$ 890,000] (corporations, labor unions and other organisations)
  • CommentSpecific ceilings apply for donors that are not individuals, determined by factors such as amount of capital and number of union members.
  • Source
18. Is there a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party in relation to an election?
19. If there is a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party in relation to an election, what is the limit?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • CommentNA
  • Source
20. Is there a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a candidate?
21. If there is a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a candidate, what is the limit?
  • Code Limit for individual donations is 1,5 million yen [I$ 13,000] per year.
  • Comment
  • Source
22. Is there a limit on the amount a candidate can contribute to their own election campaign?
23. Is there a limit on in-kind donations to political parties?
24. Is there a limit on in-kind donations to candidates?
25. Are there provisions regarding political parties engaging in commercial enterprises?
26. Are there restrictions regarding political parties taking loans in relation to election campaigns?
27. Are there restrictions regarding candidates taking loans in relation to election campaigns?
28. Are donors to political parties/candidates subsequently restricted from participating in public tender/public procurement processes?
29. Are there provisions requiring donations to go through the banking system?

Question Value
30. Are there provisions for direct public funding to political parties?
  • CodeYes, regularly provided funding
  • Comment
  • Source
31. If there are provisions for direct public funding to political parties, what are the eligibility criteria?
  • CodeRepresentation in elected body | Share of votes in previous election | Share of seats in previous election
  • CommentParliamentary representation and 2% of the vote in one of the latest elections, or winning five seats in the latest election.
  • Source
32. If there are provisions for direct public funding to political parties, what is the allocation calculation?
  • CodeProportional to votes received | Proportional to seats received
  • CommentSubsidies are allocated according to seats and votes gained by the political parties.
  • Source
33. If there are provisions for direct public funding to political parties, are there provisions for how it should be used ('ear marking')?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
34. Are there provisions for free or subsidized access to media for political parties?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
  • Source
35. If there are provisions for political parties free or subsidized access to media, what criteria determine access allocation?
  • CodeEqual | Number of candidates
  • CommentIn some cases, parties putting forward at least twelve candidates receive the same amount of broadcasting time. Parties putting forward fewer than twelve candidates receive less time.
  • Source
36. Are there provisions for free or subsidized access to media for candidates?
  • CodeYes
  • CommentFor some types of elections
  • Source
37. Are there provisions for any other form of indirect public funding?
  • CodeTax relief | Premises for campaign meetings | Free or subsidised postage cost
  • CommentIndirect funding include tax benefits, production of posters and arrangement of public meeting places for candidates.
  • Source
38. Is the provision of direct public funding to political parties related to gender equality among candidates?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
39. Are there provisions for other financial advantages to encourage gender equality in political parties?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source

Question Value
40. Is there a ban on vote buying?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
  • Source
41. Are there limits on the amount a political party can spend?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
42. If there are limits on the amount a political party can spend, what is the limit?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • CommentNA
  • Source
43. Are there limits on the amount a candidate can spend?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
  • Source
44. If there are limits on the amount a candidate can spend what is the limit for spending?
  • Code Limit varies depending on registered voters in constituency and type of election
  • Comment
  • Source
45. Are there limits on the amount that third parties can spend on election campaign activities?
46. Are there limits on traditional media advertising spending in relation to election campaigns?
47. Are there limits on online media advertising spending in relation to election campaigns?
48. Do any other restrictions on online media advertisement (beyond limits) exist?
49. IN PRACTICE: What proportion of total spending reported to the oversight agency in relation to the last campaign period was spent on media by the two presidential candidates gaining the most votes?

Question Value
50. Do political parties have to report regularly on their finances?
  • CodeYes
  • CommentAnnually
  • Source
51. Do political parties have to report on their finances in relation to election campaigns?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
52. Do candidates have to report on their campaign finances?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    Revenue and expenditure reports shall be submitted to the Local Election Management Council.

  • Source
53. Do third parties have to submit financial reports on election campaigning?
54. Do lobbying entities have to disclose information on contributions to political parties or candidates?
55. IN PRACTICE: What share of political parties required to submit financial reports in relation to the last election campaign did so?
56. IN PRACTICE: What share of candidates required to submit financial reports in relation to the last election campaign did so?
57. Is information in reports from political parties and/or candidates to be made public?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
  • Source
58. IN PRACTICE: Have campaign finance reports submitted by political parties and/or candidates in the last election been made publicly available?
59. Must reports from political parties and/or candidates reveal the identity of donors?
  • CodeSometimes
  • CommentThe identity must be disclosed if the value exceeds 50,000 yen [I$ 450]
  • Source
60. Must reports from political parties and candidates include itemized income?
61. Must reports from political parties and candidates include information on itemized spending?
62. What institution(s) receives financial reports from political parties and/or candidates?
  • CodeEMB | Ministry
  • CommentFinancial reports of political parties should be presented to the Ministry of General Affairs or the Local Election Management Council. Reports on the annual public subsides should be presented to the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communication. Individual candidates should present their report to the Local Election Management Council.
  • Source
63. Is it specified that a particular institution(s) is responsible for examining financial reports and/or investigating violations?
  • CodeYes, EMB | Yes, ministry | Yes, other
  • CommentMinister for Internal Affairs and Communications or the prefectural electoral commission check inaccuracies in submitted reports (but do not necessarily investigate breaches)
  • Source
64. If a particular institution(s) is responsible for examining financial reports and/or investigating breaches of political finance regulations, what powers is it/they granted?
65. Is it specified that a particular institution(s) is responsible for overseeing compliance with existing rules against abuse of state resources?
66. If a particular institution is responsible for overseeing compliance with existing rules against abuse of state resources, what powers is it granted?
67. Are there provisions for conflict of interests for candidates and/or elected officials?
68. Are elected officials required to submit reports regarding their finances?
69. Is it specified that a particular institution(s) is responsible for reviewing financial reports by elected officials?
70. Are reporting entities required to enforce enhanced due diligence policies and procedures regarding politically exposed persons?
71. Is it specified that a particular institution(s) is responsible for investigating money laundering that relates to political parties, candidates and elected officials?
72. What other institutions have a formal role in political finance oversight?
  • CodeCourt
  • Comment
  • Source
73. What sanctions are provided for political finance infractions?
  • CodeFines | Prison | Forfeiture | Loss of political rights | Loss of elected office
  • Comment

    Apart from fines and prison, violations can also lead to loss of elected seat or ban from public office.

  • Source
74. IN PRACTICE: How many sanctions have been issued in relation to political finance regulations in the last 24 months?