Hungary

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Question Value
Legal provisions for mandatory referendums at national level
  • Yes
Legal provisions for optional referendums at national level
  • Yes
Legal provisions for citizens' initiatives at national level
  • Yes
Legal provisions for agenda initiatives at national level
  • No
Legal provisions for recall at national level
  • No
Legal provisions for direct democracy at the regional level
  • No
Legal provisions for direct democracy at the local level
  • Optional referendum
Legal basis for direct democracy at the national level
  • Constitutional
  • Specific laws/legislation
  • Regulations
Legal basis for administrative requirements at the national level
  • Specific laws/legislation
  • Regulations
Who administers direct democracy mechanisms at the national level?
  • Independent electoral commission
First referendum/initiative held
  • 1989
Has there been a national referendum since 1980?
  • Yes

Question Value
Issues in relation to which referendums are mandatory at the national level
  • Any issue except those excluded
Issues in relation to which referendums are optional at the national level
  • Any issue of national importance, except those excluded
Issues excluded from being the subject of referendums at the national level
  • Constitutional amendments
  • Adoption of international treaties
  • Civil service
  • Taxes and public expenditure commitments
  • Amnesty and pardon
  • See also sources
Issues of sub-national referendums regulated at the national level
  • None
Who can initiate an optional referendum at the national level?
  • Government
  • President
  • Legislative minority
  • Registered electors
Who drafts the referendum question?
  • Mandatory referendum - Registered electors
  • Optional referendum - Government
  • Optional referendum - President
  • Optional referendum - Legislature
  • Optional referendum - Registered electors
Who decides on the final form of the ballot text?
  • Mandatory referendum - Independent electoral commission
  • Optional referendum - Independent electoral commission
Quorum requirements for a referendum to be valid
  • Mandatory referendum - turnout quorum
  • Mandatory referendum - approval quorum
  • Optional referendum - turnout quorum
  • Optional referendum - approval quorum
Requirements for a referendum to pass
  • Mandatory referendum - simple majority
  • Optional referendum - simple majority
Are referendum results binding?
  • Mandatory referendum - always
  • Optional referendum - sometimes

Question Value
Issues that can be proposed by citizens using the initiative process at the national level
  • Citizens' initiatives - constitutional amendments
  • Citizens' initiatives - legislative proposals
  • Citizens' initiatives - other issues
Issues excluded from being the subject of an initiative at the national level
  • Constitutional amendments
  • Adoption of international treaties
  • Civil service
  • Taxes and public expenditure commitments
  • Amnesty and pardon
Who may propose the registration of an initiative?
  • Citizens' initiative - a number of individuals
  • Also a party or any other association
Materials to accompany an application for registration
  • Proposed title
Who determines the title of an initiative?
  • Citizens' initiative - proponents of the initiative
What disqualifies a proposed title of an initiative?
  • Discriminatory or inflammatory statements
  • More than one subject area
  • Incompatibility with the law
Who is responsible for checking the legality of initiatives?
  • Independent electoral commission
At which stage legality check is conducted?
  • After its submission but before the registration of an initiative
Who decides the final ballot text when the initiative is put to a vote?
  • Agency which administers direct democracy mechanisms
When does voting take place once an initiative is qualified for ballot?
  • Within a certain time limit

Question Value
Which individuals/positions may be subject to the recall?
    What are the grounds for recall?
      What restrictions are there in relation to the time period in which an individual or position can be recalled?
        When is the recall put to the vote?
          When does the election to replace an individual who has been recalled take place?
            Can an individual who is the subject of a recall stand on the ballot for his/her own replacement?

              Question Value
              How many signatures are required to start the formal decision making stage of a direct democracy mechanism?
              • Referendum - fixed number
              • Citizens' Initiative - fixed number
              What is the deadline for collecting required number of signatures?
              • Referendum - fixed time period
              • Citizens' Initiative - fixed time period
              Restrictions in relation to the individuals who can sign the proposal
              • Not specified by legislation
              Where can proposals be signed?
              • Anywhere
              What information must signatories provide when signing the proposal?
              • Not specified by legislation
              Restrictions in relation to signature collection
              • Not specified by legislation
              What forms of checks are undertaken to verify signatures?
              • All signatures are checked
              Who checks the signatures?
              • Agency responsible for the administration of direct democracy mechanisms