Gambia

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Question Value
1. Is there a ban on donations from foreign interests to political parties?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
  • Source

    Section 104 – Participation of political parties in election

    […]

    (7) A political party shall not receive any contribution from any person who is not a citizen of The Gambia, or from any corporate or unincorporated body.”

    (Elections Decree, Decree 78 of 1996, available at http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/87126/98990/F1626110084/GMB87126.pdf accessed February 2018).                                

2. Is there a ban on donations from foreign interests to candidates?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source

                       

3. Is there a ban on corporate donations to political parties?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
  • Source

    Section 104 – Participation of political parties in election

    […]

    (7) A political party shall not receive any contribution from any person who is not a citizen of The Gambia, or from any corporate or unincorporated body.”

    (Elections Decree, Decree 78 of 1996, available at http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/87126/98990/F1626110084/GMB87126.pdfaccessed February 2018).  

                        

4. Is there a ban on corporate donations to candidates?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source

                               

5. Is there a ban on donations from Trade Unions to political parties?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source

                           

6. Is there a ban on donations from Trade Unions to candidates?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source

                               

7. Is there a ban on anonymous donations to political parties?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source

                           

8. Is there a ban on anonymous donations to candidates?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source

                   

9. Is there a ban on donations from corporations with government contracts to political parties?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
10. Is there a ban on donations from corporations with government contracts to candidates?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
11. Is there a ban on donations from corporations with partial government ownership to political parties?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
12. Is there a ban on donations from corporations with partial government ownership to candidates?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
13. Is there a ban on the use of state resources in favour or against a political party or candidate?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
  • Source

    PART VI - ELECTION CAMPAIGN

    (b) Election Campaign Ethics

    Prohibitions during election Campaigns

    91. No candidate or political party shall, during an election campaign period,

    (a) insult or slander another candidate;

    (b) abuse or engage in the improper use of property of the Government for political propaganda purposes;

    (c) campaign in public offices or educational institutions during working hours or hours of instruction.

    (Elections Decree, Decree 78 of 1996, available at http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/87126/98990/F1626110084/GMB87126.pdf accessed February 2018).                                

14. Is there a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party during a non-election specific period?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source

                             

15. If there is a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party during a non-election specific period, what is the limit?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment
  • Source
16. Is there a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party during an election?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    EMB has power to distribute donations and gifts

  • Source

    Power of Commission to make Rules

    134.

    […]

    (2) The Commission may make Rules generally for the better carrying out of the provisions of this Decree and shall in particular make Rules

    […]

    (h) prescribing the amount of donations and gifts which a candidate or political party may receive with respect to any election;

    (Elections Decree, Decree 78 of 1996, available at http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/87126/98990/F1626110084/GMB87126.pdf accessed February 2018).                                

17. If there is a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party during an election, what is the limit?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment
  • Source
18. Is there a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a candidate?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    EMB has power to distribute donations and gifts

  • Source

    Power of Commission to make Rules

    134.

    […]

    (2) The Commission may make Rules generally for the better carrying out of the provisions of this Decree and shall in particular make Rules

    […]

    (h) prescribing the amount of donations and gifts which a candidate or political party may receive with respect to any election;

    (Elections Decree, Decree 78 of 1996, available at http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/87126/98990/F1626110084/GMB87126.pdf accessed February 2018).     

19. If there is a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a candidate, what is the limit?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment
  • Source
20. Is there a limit on the amount a candidate can contribute to their own election campaign?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source

                            

21. Is there a limit on in-kind donations to political parties?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    EMB has power to distribute donations and gifts

  • Source

    Power of Commission to make Rules

    134.

    […]

    (2) The Commission may make Rules generally for the better carrying out of the provisions of this Decree and shall in particular make Rules

    […]

    (h) prescribing the amount of donations and gifts which a candidate or political party may receive with respect to any election;

    (Elections Decree, Decree 78 of 1996, available at http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/87126/98990/F1626110084/GMB87126.pdf accessed February 2018).      

22. Is there a limit on in-kind donations to candidates?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    EMB has power to distribute donations and gifts

  • Source

    Power of Commission to make Rules

    134.

    […]

    (2) The Commission may make Rules generally for the better carrying out of the provisions of this Decree and shall in particular make Rules

    […]

    (h) prescribing the amount of donations and gifts which a candidate or political party may receive with respect to any election;

    (Elections Decree, Decree 78 of 1996, available at http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/87126/98990/F1626110084/GMB87126.pdf accessed February 2018).      

23. Is there a ban on political parties engaging in commercial activities?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source

                           

24. Is there a ban on political parties taking loans in relation to election campaigns?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source

                                  

25. Is there a ban on candidates taking loans in relation to election campaigns?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source

                 

26. Is there a ban on donors to political parties/candidates participating in public tender/procurement processes?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
27. Are there provisions requiring donations to go through the banking system?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source

Question Value
28. Are there provisions for direct public funding to political parties?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    EMB has power to distribute donations and gifts

  • Source

    Power of Commission to make Rules

    134.

    […]

    (2) The Commission may make Rules generally for the better carrying out of the provisions of this Decree and shall in particular make Rules

    […]

    (h) prescribing the amount of donations and gifts which a candidate or political party may receive with respect to any election;

    (Elections Decree, Decree 78 of 1996, available at http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/87126/98990/F1626110084/GMB87126.pdf accessed February 2018).        

29. What are the eligibility criteria for political parties to receive public funding?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment

    EMB distributes donations and gifts at their own discretion.

  • Source

    Power of Commission to make Rules

    134.

    […]

    (2) The Commission may make Rules generally for the better carrying out of the provisions of this Decree and shall in particular make Rules

    […]

    (h) prescribing the amount of donations and gifts which a candidate or political party may receive with respect to any election;

    (Elections Decree, Decree 78 of 1996, available at http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/87126/98990/F1626110084/GMB87126.pdf accessed February 2018).  

30. What is the allocation calculation for political parties to receive public funding?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment
  • Source
31. What are the provisions on 'ear marking' direct public funding to political parties (how it should be used)?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment
  • Source
32. Are there provisions for free or subsidized access to media for political parties?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
  • Source

    PART VI - ELECTION CAMPAIGN

    (a) Election Campaigning

    Election campaign materials

    86. (1) Upon the commencement of an election campaign candidates and political parties may, in addition to regular campaigning,

    […]

    (b) make use of the press, radio, television and other media form;

    […]

    (c) Use of Radio and Television

    Air time on radio and TV

    93. (1) The Commission shall, during an election campaign period, ensure that equal time is given to each candidate and national party on the public radio and television.

    (2) The Commission shall, in compliance with subsection (1), determine the time to be allocated to each candidate and political party per day or such other period as the Commission may consider reasonable, taking into account the number of candidates and political parties making a request under subsection (3).

    Use of private radio and Television stations

    94. (1) Every candidate and political party shall Television stations enjoy the right to use private radio stations and television stations under the contract.

    (2) A private radio station or television station shall, during an election campaign period, guarantee to each candidate and political party, in accordance with the principle stated in subsection (1). A minimum air time of five minutes.

    Rates of air time

    95. (1) Every radio station and television station, whether public or private shall, within seven days of a declaration being made under section 85, prepare and present to the Commission the rates they intend to charge for air time for candidates and political parties.

    (2) Upon receipt of the rates, the Commission shall, if it considers it reasonable so to do, enter into negotiations with the persons concerned in the management of the radio stations and television stations for purposes of (a) finalising the rates; and (b) ensuring fairness in the distribution of air time.

    (3) The Commission shall publish the rates agreed upon under subsection (2) and a copy of such rates shall be made available, free of charge, to each candidate and political party upon request. (4) A candidate or political party requesting to be given air time in pursuance of section 93 or 94 shall pay the rates published by the Commission under subsection (3).

    (Elections Decree, Decree 78 of 1996, available at http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/87126/98990/F1626110084/GMB87126.pdf accessed February 2018).  

33. What criteria determine allocation for free or subsidized access to media for political parties?
  • CodeEqual
  • Comment
  • Source

    PART VI - ELECTION CAMPAIGN

    (a) Election Campaigning

    Election campaign materials

    86. (1) Upon the commencement of an election campaign candidates and political parties may, in addition to regular campaigning,

    […]

    (b) make use of the press, radio, television and other media form;

    […]

    (c) Use of Radio and Television

    Air time on radio and TV

    93. (1) The Commission shall, during an election campaign period, ensure that equal time is given to each candidate and national party on the public radio and television.

    (2) The Commission shall, in compliance with subsection (1), determine the time to be allocated to each candidate and political party per day or such other period as the Commission may consider reasonable, taking into account the number of candidates and political parties making a request under subsection (3).

    (Elections Decree, Decree 78 of 1996, available at http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/87126/98990/F1626110084/GMB87126.pdf accessed February 2018).  

34. Are there provisions for free or subsidized access to media for candidates?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
  • Source

    PART VI - ELECTION CAMPAIGN

    (a) Election Campaigning

    Election campaign materials

    86. (1) Upon the commencement of an election campaign candidates and political parties may, in addition to regular campaigning,

    […]

    (b) make use of the press, radio, television and other media form;

    […]

    (c) Use of Radio and Television

    Air time on radio and TV

    93. (1) The Commission shall, during an election campaign period, ensure that equal time is given to each candidate and national party on the public radio and television.

    (2) The Commission shall, in compliance with subsection (1), determine the time to be allocated to each candidate and political party per day or such other period as the Commission may consider reasonable, taking into account the number of candidates and political parties making a request under subsection (3).

    Use of private radio and Television stations

    94. (1) Every candidate and political party shall Television stations enjoy the right to use private radio stations and television stations under the contract.

    (2) A private radio station or television station shall, during an election campaign period, guarantee to each candidate and political party, in accordance with the principle stated in subsection (1). A minimum air time of five minutes.

    Rates of air time

    95. (1) Every radio station and television station, whether public or private shall, within seven days of a declaration being made under section 85, prepare and present to the Commission the rates they intend to charge for air time for candidates and political parties.

    (2) Upon receipt of the rates, the Commission shall, if it considers it reasonable so to do, enter into negotiations with the persons concerned in the management of the radio stations and television stations for purposes of (a) finalising the rates; and (b) ensuring fairness in the distribution of air time.

    (3) The Commission shall publish the rates agreed upon under subsection (2) and a copy of such rates shall be made available, free of charge, to each candidate and political party upon request. (4) A candidate or political party requesting to be given air time in pursuance of section 93 or 94 shall pay the rates published by the Commission under subsection (3).

    (Elections Decree, Decree 78 of 1996, available at http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/87126/98990/F1626110084/GMB87126.pdf accessed February 2018).  

35. Are there provisions for any other form of indirect public funding?
  • CodeTax relief
  • Comment
  • Source

    PART VI - ELECTION CAMPAIGN

    Election campaign materials

    86. (4) A candidate or political party shall, notwithstanding any law to the contrary, be exempted from the payments of customs duty in respect of election campaign material which is imported upon the presentation of a Certificate of Authorisation issued by the Commission.

    (Elections Decree, Decree 78 of 1996, available at http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/87126/98990/F1626110084/GMB87126.pdf accessed February 2018).                                

36. Is the provision of direct public funding to political parties tied to gender equality among candidates?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
37. Are there provisions for other financial advantages to encourage gender equality in political parties?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source

Question Value
38. Is there a ban on vote buying?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
  • Source

    Bribery

    117. (1) A person is guilty of bribery if he

    (a) directly or indirectly, by himself or by any other person on his behalf, gives, lend agrees to give or lands, offers, promises, or promises to procure or endeavour to produce any money or valuable consideration to or for any other person in order to induce any person in order to induce any voter to vote or refrain from voting or does any such act on account of such voter having voted or refrained from voting at any election;

    (b) directly or indirectly, by himself or by any other person on his behalf, gives or procures or agrees to give or procure or offers, promises or promises to procure or endeavour to procure any office, place or employment to or for any other person in order to induce any voter to vote or refrain from voting or does any such act on account of such voter having voted or refrained from voting at any election;

    (c) directly or indirectly, by himself or by any other person on his behalf, makes any gift, loan, offer, promise, procurement or agreement to or for any person in order to induce such person to procure or to endeavour to procure the return of any person at any election or the vote of any voter at any election;

    (d) upon or in consequence of any gift, loan, offer, promise, procurement or agreement, procures or engages or promises or endeavours to procure the return of any person at any election or the vote of any voter at any election;

    (e) advances or pays or causes to be advanced or paid any money to or for the use of any other person with the intent that such money, or any part thereof, shall be expended in bribery at any election or who knowingly pays or causes to be paid money wholly or in part expended in bribery at any election; 

    (f) before or during any election, directly or indirectly, by himself or by any other person on his behalf, receives, agrees or contracts for any money, gift, loan or valuable consideration, office, place or employment for himself or for any other person for voting or agreeing to vote or for refraining or agreeing to refrain from voting at any election; or

    (g) after any election, directly or indirectly, by himself or by any other person on his behalf, receives any money or valuable consideration on account of any person having voted or refrained from voting or having induced any other person to vote or refrain from voting at any such election.

    (2) The provisions of sub-section (1) shall not be construed to extend to any money paid or agreed to be paid for or on account of any legal expenses bona fide incurred concerning any election.

    (Elections Decree, Decree 78 of 1996, available at http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/87126/98990/F1626110084/GMB87126.pdf accessed February 2018).                                

39. Are there limits on the amount a political party can spend?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source

    9. CAMPAIGN FINANCE

    Campaign finance is very lightly regulated, with an absence of legal provisions to restrain the undue impact of money in campaigning. Individual Gambian citizens, civil society organisations and private entities may all make campaign contributions. Donations from corporations and unincorporated bodies and from all foreign entities are prohibited. There are no ceilings on donations or expenditure, while there are also no monitoring and enforcement mechanisms in place. A state party to the UN Convention against Corruption since 2015, law reform is required to ensure that the obligations to ensure transparency and fairness are complied with. Overall, parties and candidates lacked financial means to diversify and intensify the campaign. The Coalition 2016 campaign was funded by some wealthy individuals and the diaspora. They distributed vehicles and money to member-parties, proportionate to the number of candidates. Independent candidates, supporting the Coalition 2016, also received some resources. The Coalition 2016 representatives did not disclose to the EU EOM the amount of funds at its disposal. Wealthy party members paid for the APRC and the GDC campaigns. Again, the costs were not disclosed.

    European Union Election Observation Mission to the Gambia National Assembly Elections, 6 April 2017, Preliminary Statement, available at https://eeas.europa.eu/sites/eeas/files/eu_eom_the_gambia_preliminary_statement_3.pdf accessed February 2018.

40. If there are limits on the amount a political party can spend, what is the limit?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment
  • Source
41. Are there limits on the amount a candidate can spend?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source

    9. CAMPAIGN FINANCE

    Campaign finance is very lightly regulated, with an absence of legal provisions to restrain the undue impact of money in campaigning. Individual Gambian citizens, civil society organisations and private entities may all make campaign contributions. Donations from corporations and unincorporated bodies and from all foreign entities are prohibited. There are no ceilings on donations or expenditure, while there are also no monitoring and enforcement mechanisms in place. A state party to the UN Convention against Corruption since 2015, law reform is required to ensure that the obligations to ensure transparency and fairness are complied with. Overall, parties and candidates lacked financial means to diversify and intensify the campaign. The Coalition 2016 campaign was funded by some wealthy individuals and the diaspora. They distributed vehicles and money to member-parties, proportionate to the number of candidates. Independent candidates, supporting the Coalition 2016, also received some resources. The Coalition 2016 representatives did not disclose to the EU EOM the amount of funds at its disposal. Wealthy party members paid for the APRC and the GDC campaigns. Again, the costs were not disclosed.

    European Union Election Observation Mission to the Gambia National Assembly Elections, 6 April 2017, Preliminary Statement, available at https://eeas.europa.eu/sites/eeas/files/eu_eom_the_gambia_preliminary_statement_3.pdf accessed February 2018.

42. If there are limits on the amount a candidate can spend, what is the limit?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment
  • Source
43. Are there limits on the amount that third parties can spend on election campaign activities?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source

                              

44. Are there limits on traditional media advertising spending in relation to election campaigns?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
45. Are there limits on online media advertising spending in relation to election campaigns?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
46. Do any other restrictions on online media advertisement (beyond limits) exist?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source

Question Value
47. Do political parties have to report regularly on their finances?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source

    9. CAMPAIGN FINANCE

    Campaign finance is very lightly regulated, with an absence of legal provisions to restrain the undue impact of money in campaigning. Individual Gambian citizens, civil society organisations and private entities may all make campaign contributions. Donations from corporations and unincorporated bodies and from all foreign entities are prohibited. There are no ceilings on donations or expenditure, while there are also no monitoring and enforcement mechanisms in place. A state party to the UN Convention against Corruption since 2015, law reform is required to ensure that the obligations to ensure transparency and fairness are complied with. Overall, parties and candidates lacked financial means to diversify and intensify the campaign. The Coalition 2016 campaign was funded by some wealthy individuals and the diaspora. They distributed vehicles and money to member-parties, proportionate to the number of candidates. Independent candidates, supporting the Coalition 2016, also received some resources. The Coalition 2016 representatives did not disclose to the EU EOM the amount of funds at its disposal. Wealthy party members paid for the APRC and the GDC campaigns. Again, the costs were not disclosed.

    European Union Election Observation Mission to the Gambia National Assembly Elections, 6 April 2017, Preliminary Statement, available at https://eeas.europa.eu/sites/eeas/files/eu_eom_the_gambia_preliminary_statement_3.pdf accessed February 2018.

48. Do political parties have to report on their election campaign finances?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source

    9. CAMPAIGN FINANCE

    Campaign finance is very lightly regulated, with an absence of legal provisions to restrain the undue impact of money in campaigning. Individual Gambian citizens, civil society organisations and private entities may all make campaign contributions. Donations from corporations and unincorporated bodies and from all foreign entities are prohibited. There are no ceilings on donations or expenditure, while there are also no monitoring and enforcement mechanisms in place. A state party to the UN Convention against Corruption since 2015, law reform is required to ensure that the obligations to ensure transparency and fairness are complied with. Overall, parties and candidates lacked financial means to diversify and intensify the campaign. The Coalition 2016 campaign was funded by some wealthy individuals and the diaspora. They distributed vehicles and money to member-parties, proportionate to the number of candidates. Independent candidates, supporting the Coalition 2016, also received some resources. The Coalition 2016 representatives did not disclose to the EU EOM the amount of funds at its disposal. Wealthy party members paid for the APRC and the GDC campaigns. Again, the costs were not disclosed.

    European Union Election Observation Mission to the Gambia National Assembly Elections, 6 April 2017, Preliminary Statement, available at https://eeas.europa.eu/sites/eeas/files/eu_eom_the_gambia_preliminary_statement_3.pdf accessed February 2018.

49. Do candidates have to report on their election campaign finances?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source

    9. CAMPAIGN FINANCE

    Campaign finance is very lightly regulated, with an absence of legal provisions to restrain the undue impact of money in campaigning. Individual Gambian citizens, civil society organisations and private entities may all make campaign contributions. Donations from corporations and unincorporated bodies and from all foreign entities are prohibited. There are no ceilings on donations or expenditure, while there are also no monitoring and enforcement mechanisms in place. A state party to the UN Convention against Corruption since 2015, law reform is required to ensure that the obligations to ensure transparency and fairness are complied with. Overall, parties and candidates lacked financial means to diversify and intensify the campaign. The Coalition 2016 campaign was funded by some wealthy individuals and the diaspora. They distributed vehicles and money to member-parties, proportionate to the number of candidates. Independent candidates, supporting the Coalition 2016, also received some resources. The Coalition 2016 representatives did not disclose to the EU EOM the amount of funds at its disposal. Wealthy party members paid for the APRC and the GDC campaigns. Again, the costs were not disclosed.

    European Union Election Observation Mission to the Gambia National Assembly Elections, 6 April 2017, Preliminary Statement, available at https://eeas.europa.eu/sites/eeas/files/eu_eom_the_gambia_preliminary_statement_3.pdf accessed February 2018.

50. Do third parties have to report on election campaign finances?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
51. Is information in reports from political parties and/or candidates to be made public?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment
  • Source
52. Must reports from political parties and/or candidates reveal the identity of donors?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment
  • Source
53. Must reports from political parties and/or candidates include information on itemized income?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment
  • Source
54. Must reports from political parties and/or candidates include information on itemized spending?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment
  • Source
55. Which institution(s) receives financial reports from political parties and/or candidates?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment
  • Source
56. Which institution(s) is responsible for examining financial reports and/or investigating violations?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
57. What power is granted to the institution(s) responsible for examining reports and/or investigating violations?
  • Code Not applicable
  • Comment
  • Source
58. What sanctions are provided for political finance infractions?
  • CodeFines | Prison | Loss of political rights
  • Comment
  • Source

    Punishment for corrupt practices

    121. (1) A person who is guilty of bribery, treating, undue influence or personation or of aiding and abetting,counseling or procuring the commission of the offence of personation commits the offence of a corrupt practice and is liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding twenty-five thousand dalasis or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding five years, or both.

     (2) person who is convicted of a corrupt practice shall, in addition to any other punishment, be incapable during a period of ten years from the date of his conviction, or, if on such conviction he has been sentenced to imprisonment, during such imprisonment and during a period of ten years from the date when complete the serving of such sentence

    (a) of being registered as voter or voting at any election held under the provisions of this Decree,

    (b) of being elected to any office to which this Decree applies or, if elected before his conviction, of retaining such office, and

    (c) of holding any judicial office.

    (Elections Decree, Decree 78 of 1996, available at http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/87126/98990/F1626110084/GMB87126.pdf accessed February 2018).                                

Disclaimer: Maps presented do not imply on the part of the Institute any judgement on the legal status of any territory or the endorsement of such boundaries, nor does the placement or size of any country or territory reflect the political view of International IDEA. Maps are used in order to add visual clarity to data.