Finland

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Question Value
1. Is there a ban on donations from foreign interests to political parties?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    However, a party may receive foreign contributions only from individuals and from such international associations and foundations that represent the party's ideological attitude.

  • Source

    Article 8b - Act on Political Parties (1969) last amended in 2010.

2. Is there a ban on donations from foreign interests to candidates?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    However, a candidate may receive foreign contributions for the election campaign only from individuals  and from international associations and foundations that represent the candidate's ideological views. 

  • Source

    Article 4 - Act on Candidate's Election Funding (2009) last amended in 2015.

3. Is there a ban on corporate donations to political parties?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    There is no ban, but a limit on the amount a single donor can contribute to a political party (EUR 30,000 per calendar year). 

  • Source

    Article 8b - Act on Political Parties (1969) last amended in 2010.

4. Is there a ban on corporate donations to candidates?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    There is no ban, but a limit on the amount, per calendar year, a single donor can contribute to a candidate's campaign (EUR 3,000 in municipal elections, EUR 6,000 in parliamentary elections, EUR 10,000 in European elections). 

  • Source

    Article 4 - Act on Candidate's Election Funding (2009) last amended in 2015.

5. Is there a ban on donations from Trade Unions to political parties?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    There is no ban, but a limit on the amount a single donor can contribute to a political party (EUR 30,000 per calendar year). 

  • Source

    Article 8b - Act on Political Parties (1969) last amended in 2010.

6. Is there a ban on donations from Trade Unions to candidates?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    There is no ban, but a limit on the amount, per calendar year, a single donor can contribute to a candidate's campaign (EUR 3,000 in municipal elections, EUR 6,000 in parliamentary elections, EUR 10,000 in European elections). 

  • Source

    Article 4 - Act on Candidate's Election Funding (2009) last amended in 2015.

7. Is there a ban on anonymous donations to political parties?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    A party may not receive contributions that cannot be identified. However, this ban does not apply to regular collections. 

  • Source

    Article 8b - Act on Political Parties (1969) last amended in 2010.

8. Is there a ban on anonymous donations to candidates?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    A candidate may not receive contributions that cannot be identified. However, this ban does not apply to regular collections. 

  • Source

    Article 4 - Act on Candidate's Election Funding (2009) last amended in 2015.

9. Is there a ban on donations from corporations with government contracts to political parties?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    A party  may not receive contributions from the state, municipalities, municipalities, state or municipal businesses, public-law associations, establishments or foundations or from companies in which the state or a municipality has a controlling influence.

  • Source

    Article 8b - Act on Political Parties (1969) last amended in 2010.

10. Is there a ban on donations from corporations with government contracts to candidates?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    A candidate may not receive contributions for the election campaign from the state, municipalities, municipalities, state or municipal business, public-law associations, institutions or foundations or from companies such as the state or a municipality has decisive influence.

     

  • Source

    Article 4 - Act on Candidate's Election Funding (2009) last amended in 2015.

11. Is there a ban on donations from corporations with partial government ownership to political parties?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    A party  may not receive contributions from the state, municipalities, municipalities, state or municipal businesses, public-law associations, establishments or foundations or from companies in which the state or a municipality has a controlling influence.

  • Source

    Article 8b - Act on Political Parties (1969) last amended in 2010.

12. Is there a ban on donations from corporations with partial government ownership to candidates?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    A candidate may not receive contributions for the election campaign from the state, municipalities, municipalities, state or municipal business, public-law associations, institutions or foundations or from companies such as the state or a municipality has decisive influence.

  • Source

    Article 4 - Act on Candidate's Election Funding (2009) last amended in 2015.

13. Is there a ban on the use of state resources in favour or against a political party or candidate?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
  • Source

    Article 10 - Act on Political Parties (1969) last amended in 2010.

     

14. Is there a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party during a non-election specific period?
  • CodeYes, for both natural and legal persons
  • Comment

    There is an annual limit on the amount a single donor can contribute to a political party (EUR 30,000 per calendar year). 

  • Source

    Article 8b - Act on Political Parties (1969) last amended in 2010.

     

15. If there is a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party during a non-election specific period, what is the limit?
  • Code There is an annual limit on the amount a single donor can contribute to a political party (EUR 30,000 per calendar year).
  • Comment
  • Source

    Article 8b - Act on Political Parties (1969) last amended in 2010.

16. Is there a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party during an election?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    There is no specific limit in relation to an election. However, there is an annual, general limit on the amount a single donor can contribute to a political party (EUR 30,000 per calendar year), see question 16. 

  • Source

    Article 8b - Act on Political Parties (1969) last amended in 2010.

17. If there is a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party during an election, what is the limit?
  • Code There is an annual limit on the amount a single donor can contribute to a political party (EUR 30,000 per calendar year).
  • Comment
  • Source
18. Is there a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a candidate?
  • CodeYes, for both natural and legal persons
  • Comment
  • Source

    Article 4 - Act on Candidate's Election Funding (2009) last amended in 2015.

19. If there is a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a candidate, what is the limit?
  • Code There is a limit on the amount, per calendar year, a single donor can contribute to a candidate's campaign (EUR 3,000 in municipal elections, EUR 6,000 in parliamentary elections, EUR 10,000 in European elections).
  • Comment
  • Source

    Article 4 - Act on Candidate's Election Funding (2009) last amended in 2015.

20. Is there a limit on the amount a candidate can contribute to their own election campaign?
  • CodeDonation limit for private persons apply
  • Comment

    There is a limit on the amount, per calendar year, a single donor can contribute to a candidate's campaign (EUR 3,000 in municipal elections, EUR 6,000 in parliamentary elections, EUR 10,000 in European elections).

  • Source

    Article 4 - Act on Candidate's Election Funding (2009) last amended in 2015.

21. Is there a limit on in-kind donations to political parties?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment

    In-kind donations are largely unregulated. For in-kind donations, contestants are obliged to give voluntary estimate of the donations they include in the financial reports. Some OSCE/ODIHR NAM interlocutors raised concerns that this issue is not sufficiently regulated and might be potentially misused by some contestants.

    OSCE/ODIHR (2018) Republic of Finland, Presidential Election, 28 January 2018. OSCE/ODIHR Needs Assessment Mission Report. OSCE/ODIHR, Warsaw.

  • Source
22. Is there a limit on in-kind donations to candidates?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source

    In-kind donations are largely unregulated. For in-kind donations, contestants are obliged to give voluntary estimate of the donations they include in the financial reports. Some OSCE/ODIHR NAM interlocutors raised concerns that this issue is not sufficiently regulated and might be potentially misused by some contestants.

    OSCE/ODIHR (2018) Republic of Finland, Presidential Election, 28 January 2018. OSCE/ODIHR Needs Assessment Mission Report. OSCE/ODIHR, Warsaw.

23. Is there a ban on political parties engaging in commercial activities?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source

    In this respect, private support to political parties may be provided through membership fees, lotteries, income from property, collections, sales of newspapers/ party publications and contributions.

    GRECO (2007), Evaluation Report on Finland on Transparency of Party Funding, p.7.

24. Is there a ban on political parties taking loans in relation to election campaigns?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
25. Is there a ban on candidates taking loans in relation to election campaigns?
  • CodeNo data
  • Comment
  • Source
26. Is there a ban on donors to political parties/candidates participating in public tender/procurement processes?
  • CodeNo data
  • Comment
  • Source
27. Are there provisions requiring donations to go through the banking system?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source

Question Value
28. Are there provisions for direct public funding to political parties?
  • CodeYes, regularly provided funding
  • Comment
  • Source

    Article 9 - Act on Political Parties (1969) last amended in 2010.

29. What are the eligibility criteria for political parties to receive public funding?
  • CodeRepresentation in elected body
  • Comment

    Public funding is provided to all political parties that have at least one representative in the parliament in proportion to the number of seats held.

    OSCE/ODIHR (2015) Republic of Finland, Parliamentary Elections, 19 April 2015. OSCE/ODIHR Needs Assessment Mission Report. OSCE/ODIHR, Warsaw.

  • Source

    Article 9 - Act on Political Parties (1969) last amended in 2010.

30. What is the allocation calculation for political parties to receive public funding?
  • CodeProportional to seats received
  • Comment
  • Source

    Article 9 - Act on Political Parties (1969) last amended in 2010.

31. What are the provisions on 'ear marking' direct public funding to political parties (how it should be used)?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
32. Are there provisions for free or subsidized access to media for political parties?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
  • Source
33. What criteria determine allocation for free or subsidized access to media for political parties?
  • CodeEqual
  • Comment
  • Source
34. Are there provisions for free or subsidized access to media for candidates?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
35. Are there provisions for any other form of indirect public funding?
  • CodeTax relief | Free or subsidised postage cost
  • Comment
  • Source

    The donations received by political parties, constituency associations and support groups of a given candidate are exempt from tax. Donations to an individual candidate are considered as gifts liable to taxation if the amount received from the same donor over a period of three years comes to or exceeds 3,400 EUR.

    GRECO (2007) Evaluation Report on Finland on Transparency of Party Funding (Theme II), p.7.

    Free use of the postal service for the purpose of contacting voters is very common internationally (including, for example, Austria, Finland, France, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom).

    Cost of Democracy: Essays on Political Finance in Latin America. International IDEA. 2016, p.13.

36. Is the provision of direct public funding to political parties tied to gender equality among candidates?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
37. Are there provisions for other financial advantages to encourage gender equality in political parties?
  • CodeYes, funding to women's wings
  • Comment
  • Source

    All political parties have to allocate 12 per cent of their annual party subsidy to support women's wings (Yearly decision of the government). 

Question Value
38. Is there a ban on vote buying?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
  • Source

    Article 2 - Criminal Code (1889)

39. Are there limits on the amount a political party can spend?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
40. If there are limits on the amount a political party can spend, what is the limit?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment
  • Source
41. Are there limits on the amount a candidate can spend?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
42. If there are limits on the amount a candidate can spend, what is the limit?
  • CodeNot applicable
  • Comment
  • Source
43. Are there limits on the amount that third parties can spend on election campaign activities?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
44. Are there limits on traditional media advertising spending in relation to election campaigns?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source

    Paid political advertisement in private media including online is allowed.

    OSCE/ODIHR (2018) Republic of Finland, Presidential Election, 28 January 2018. OSCE/ODIHR Needs Assessment Mission Report. OSCE/ODIHR, Warsaw.

45. Are there limits on online media advertising spending in relation to election campaigns?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source

    Paid political advertisement in private media including online is allowed.

    OSCE/ODIHR (2018) Republic of Finland, Presidential Election, 28 January 2018. OSCE/ODIHR Needs Assessment Mission Report. OSCE/ODIHR, Warsaw.

46. Do any other restrictions on online media advertisement (beyond limits) exist?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source

    Paid political advertisement in private media including online is allowed.

    OSCE/ODIHR (2018) Republic of Finland, Presidential Election, 28 January 2018. OSCE/ODIHR Needs Assessment Mission Report. OSCE/ODIHR, Warsaw.

Question Value
47. Do political parties have to report regularly on their finances?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    Political parties have to submit to the State Audit Office and the Ministry of Justice, within three months of the approval of their financial statement and on an annual basis, certified copies of the income statement and balance sheet, as well as the audit report.

  • Source

    Article 9d - Act on Political Parties (1969) last amended in 2010.

48. Do political parties have to report on their election campaign finances?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    A party has to submit to the National Audit Office a campaign finance report relating to the campaign period for each general election. 

  • Source

    Article 9b - Act on Political Parties (1969) last amended in 2010.

49. Do candidates have to report on their election campaign finances?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    The reports must be submitted to the National Audit Office within two months after the election results have been established. 

  • Source

    Articles 5 and 8 - Act on Candidate's Election Funding (2009) last amended in 2015.

50. Do third parties have to report on election campaign finances?
  • CodeNo
  • Comment
  • Source
51. Is information in reports from political parties and/or candidates to be made public?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment

    The National Audit Office publishes all financial reports online and reports to the parliament annually.

  • Source

    Articles 9e and f - Act on Political Parties (1969) last amended in 2010.

    Article 10 - Act on Candidate's Election Funding (2009) last amended in 2015.

     

52. Must reports from political parties and/or candidates reveal the identity of donors?
  • CodeSometimes
  • Comment

    Political parties and/ or candidates have to disclose donations if the value of such contributions exceeds EUR 1,500 (and EUR 800 in municipal elections). Below these amounts, parties/ candidates need the consent for disclosure from the donor.

  • Source

    Article 9b - Act on Political Parties (1969) last amended in 2010.

    Article 6 - Act on Candidate's Election Funding (2009) last amended in 2015.

53. Must reports from political parties and/or candidates include information on itemized income?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
  • Source

    Article 9b - Act on Political Parties (1969) last amended in 2010.

    Article 6 - Act on Candidate's Election Funding (2009) last amended in 2015.

    Also, GRECO (2007), Evaluation Report on Finland on Transparency of Party Funding, p.9 and 10. 

    The Ministry of Justice has issued a standardized form for reporting election financing of a registered political party. Campaign revenues are to be itemized as follows:

    • Party subsidies;
    • Subsidies from own organization (monetary aid from the party, member organizations or members);
    • Other subsidies for election activities (granted by other than the party’s own members);
    • Sale proceeds (e.g. lotteries);
    • Proceeds from publishing activities (e.g. advertisements);
    • Other election financing (reserves and funds, loans, other financing).

     

    Campaign expenditure is to be recorded as follows:

    • Newspaper adverting;
    • Radio and television advertising;
    • Direct marketing;
    • Other election advertising (e.g. posters, videos, brochures which are not included in the expenditure items above);
    • Subsidies for election activities;
    • Election events;
    • Other expenses of election activities (e.g. loan instalments, financing costs, training costs, acquisition of materials, salaries and fees, etc.).

     

54. Must reports from political parties and/or candidates include information on itemized spending?
  • CodeYes
  • Comment
  • Source

    Article 9b - Act on Political Parties (1969) last amended in 2010.

    Article 6 - Act on Candidate's Election Funding (2009) last amended in 2015.

    Also, GRECO (2007), Evaluation Report on Finland on Transparency of Party Funding, p.9 and 10. 

    The Ministry of Justice has issued a standardized form for reporting election financing of a registered political party. Campaign revenues are to be itemized as follows:

    • Party subsidies;
    • Subsidies from own organization (monetary aid from the party, member organizations or members);
    • Other subsidies for election activities (granted by other than the party’s own members);
    • Sale proceeds (e.g. lotteries);
    • Proceeds from publishing activities (e.g. advertisements);
    • Other election financing (reserves and funds, loans, other financing).

     

    Campaign expenditure is to be recorded as follows:

    • Newspaper adverting;
    • Radio and television advertising;
    • Direct marketing;
    • Other election advertising (e.g. posters, videos, brochures which are not included in the expenditure items above);
    • Subsidies for election activities;
    • Election events;
    • Other expenses of election activities (e.g. loan instalments, financing costs, training costs, acquisition of materials, salaries and fees, etc.).
55. Which institution(s) receives financial reports from political parties and/or candidates?
  • CodeMinistry | Auditing agency
  • Comment

    Ministry of Justice is responsible for controlling public funding accounting and the proper use of such funds.  The National Audit Office is tasked with the oversight of political party annual reports and all campaign finance reports.

  • Source

    Article 9d - Act on Political Parties (1969) last amended in 2010.

    Article 8 - Act on Candidate's Election Funding (2009) last amended in 2015.

56. Which institution(s) is responsible for examining financial reports and/or investigating violations?
  • CodeYes, ministry | Yes, auditing agency
  • Comment
  • Source

    Article 9e - Act on Political Parties (1969) last amended in 2010.

    Article 10 - Act on Candidate's Election Funding (2009) last amended in 2015.

57. What power is granted to the institution(s) responsible for examining reports and/or investigating violations?
  • CodeRequest additional information from potential violator | Impose sanctions
  • Comment
  • Source

    Article 9e - Act on Political Parties (1969) last amended in 2010.

    Article 10 - Act on Candidate's Election Funding (2009) last amended in 2015.

    See also: OSCE/ODIHR (2018) Republic of Finland, Presidential Election, 28 January 2018. OSCE/ODIHR Needs Assessment Mission Report. OSCE/ODIHR, Warsaw, p.7. 

    The NAO is vested with sanctioning powers in situations where required documents or information are not submitted, corrected or completed. According to the 2000 Act on National Audit Office, the NAO has discretion to determine the amount of the sanction. Sanctions are imposed following repeated reminders to correct a mistake or submit a missing document. 

58. What sanctions are provided for political finance infractions?
  • CodeFines | Loss of public funding
  • Comment
  • Source

    Article 9e - Act on Political Parties (1969) last amended in 2010.

    Article 10 - Act on Candidate's Election Funding (2009) last amended in 2015.

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